The Penstemons

Seed Germination Methodology

Updated November 22, 2000

Jim Swayne <jas3255@yahoo.com>

|This page covers specific epithets A through J.|     |Jump to K through Z and synonyms.|

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While seed of many Penstemon species germinates easily without any special treatment, others are more difficult. Generally the species from the Eastern United States germinate easily and can even become weedy in the garden. Species from alpine, desert, or other regions where the climate is harsh have evolved in a way so that germination only occurs when conditions are right. Germination inhibitors must be removed by exposure to long periods of dry conditions, moist cold stratification or periods of temperature variation. What the gardener must do is to try to simulate the conditions found in the native habitat between the time that seed is set and germination occurs as closely as possible. You should expect germination to be irregular and occurring over a long period of time for many species. If seed has not germinated by May then allow the flat to gradually dry and store in a dry place until the next year. Germination can often occur in the second or third year.

I recommend a planting mix of 40% perlite and 60% vermiculite. While many strategies will give good result, I prefer to sow seed in containers in December and place them outdoors in a place protected from animals under a floating row cover. This method provides an easy way to get temperature variation and cold stratification without a lot of extra work. If you live in a dry area you may need to provide water. I have found that most germination occurs at temperatures at or below 70° F so if germination has not occurred before tomato planting time, it probably won’t occur that year. Species known to germinate during either the first or second year after sowing are indicated by the word "yes" in the final column (2nd Yr. Germ.). Carry those seed pots lacking germination into the next season.  If the species you seek is not on the list, jump to the synonym list at the end of the second page.

If no germination information is given, try the default germination strategy of 12 weeks outdoor treatment in winter if you live where temperatures go below zero Farenheit for at least 60 days or a similar period in the refrigerator mixing the seed with moist vermiculite and place the mix in a plastic baggie.

Penstemon Species , Penstemon Group , (Zone) , Germination Methodology , (Size {h" x w"}) , Habit , Color , Native Habitat , 2nd Yr. Germ.

P. abietinus , Caespitosi , ( 4 ), Surface sow 12 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), needs light for germ. , ( 2x8 ), mat , blue , dry upland
P. absarokensis , Habroanthus , ( 4 ), Sow barely covered 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), move to 50ºF (10ºC) under light; if no germ. in 4 wks, move to 60ºF (16ºC) , ( 6x? ), herbaceous , blue , screes
P. acaulis v. acaulis , Caespitosi , ( 3 ), Sow under thin cover 12 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC) , ( 1x8 ), tufted , blue , dry upland
P. acaulis v. yampaensis , Caespitosi , ( 3 ), Sow under thin cover 12 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC) , ( 1x3 ), tufted , blue , dry upland
P. acuminatus v. acuminatus , Anularius , ( 6 ), Sow under thin cover 12 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), move to 50ºF (10ºC) for germ. , ( 24x8 ), herbaceous , blue, lavender, pink , dryland , yes
P. acuminatus v. latebracteatus , Anularius , ( 6 ), Sow under thin cover 12 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC) , ( 24x8 ), herbaceous , blue, lavender, pink , dryland
P. alamosensis , Centranthifolii , ( 5 ), Sow under thin cover 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC) , ( 22x3 ), herbaceous , red , rocky
P. albertinus , Humiles , ( 5 ), Sow barely covered 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), germinates at 40ºF under light. , ( 18x9 ), mat , blue, violet , alpine
P. albidus , Aurator , ( 4 ), Sow under thin cover 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC) , ( 6x3 ), herbaceous , white , plains
P. albomarginatus , Arenarii , ( ? ), Sow barely covered 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), move to 50ºF (10ºC) under light; if no germ. in 4 wks, move to 60ºF (16ºC) , ( 8x? ), herbaceous , pink , desert
P. alluviorum , Penstemon , ( 6 ), Sow barely covered 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), germinates @ 40ºF , ( 48x? ), herbaceous , white , moist woodland
P. ambiguus , Ambigui , ( 5-10 ), Sow fresh seed @ 70ºF (21ºC), sow stored seed under thin cover 6 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC) , ( 24x20 ), shrub , white, pink , dryland
P. ammophilus , Habroanthus , ( 6 ), Sow barely covered 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), move to 50ºF (10ºC) under light; if no germ. in 4 wks, move to 60ºF (16ºC) , ( 6X? ), herbaceous , blue, purple , sand dunes
P. amphorellae , Fasciculus , ( ? ), Store seed @ 70ºF (21ºC) in a non-humid environment for 6 mo. Sow barely covered 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), move to 60ºF (16ºC) for germ. under light. , ( 16x? ), herbaceous , blue , dryland
P. angelicus , Peltanthera , ( 8 ), Sow barely covered 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), move to 50ºF (10ºC) under light; if no germ. in 4 wks, move to 60ºF (16ºC) , ( 50x? ), herbaceous , scarlet , desert
P. anguineus , Humiles , ( 5 ), Sow under thin cover 12 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), move to 50ºF (10ºC) for germ. , ( 30x16 ), herbaceous , blue, purple , open wooded , yes
P. angustifolius ssp. angustifolius , Anularius , ( 4 ), Sow under thin cover 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC) , ( 16x12 ), herbaceous , pink, blue, varies , plains
P. angustifolius v. dulcis , Anularius , ( 4 ), Sow under thin cover 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC) , ( 16x12 ), herbaceous , pink, red , plains
P. angustifolius v. venosus , Anularius , ( 4 ), Sow under thin cover 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC) , ( 24x12 ), herbaceous , pink, blue, varies , plains
P. angustifolius v. vernalensis , Anularius , ( 4 ), Sow under thin cover 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC) , ( 16x12 ), herbaceous , pink, blue, varies , plains
P. arenarius , Arenarii , ( 4 ), Sow barely covered 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), move to 50ºF (10ºC) under light; if no germ. in 4 wks, move to 60ºF (16ºC) , ( 11x? ), herbaceous , white, lavender , sand dunes
P. arenicola , Anularius , ( 4 ), Sow under thin cover 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC) , ( 4x6 ), herbaceous , blue , dryland , yes
P. aridus , Humiles , ( 4 ), Sow fresh seed @ 70ºF (21ºC), sow stored seed under thin cover 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), move to 50ºF (10ºC) under light; if no germ. in 4 wks, move to 60ºF (16ºC) , ( 8x3 ), herbaceous , blue, purple , screes
P. arkansanus , Penstemon , ( 6 ), Sow barely covered 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), move to 60ºF (16ºC) under light. , ( 18x? ), herbaceous , white, lavender , moist woodland
P. attenuatus "Bald Mt." , Proceri , ( 4 ), Sow barely covered 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), move to 50ºF (10ºC) under light; if no germ. in 4 wks, move to 60ºF (16ºC) , ( 16x10 ), herbaceous , blue , rocky cliff
P. attenuatus "Nelsoni" , Proceri , ( 4 ), Sow barely covered 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), move to 50ºF (10ºC) under light; if no germ. in 4 wks, move to 60ºF (16ºC) , ( 16x10 ), herbaceous , yellow, white , open wooded
P. attenuatus v. attenuatus , Proceri , ( 4 ), Sow barely covered 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), move to 50ºF (10ºC) under light; if no germ. in 4 wks, move to 60ºF (16ºC) , ( 27x10 ), herbaceous , blue, varies , open wooded
P. attenuatus v. militaris , Proceri , ( 4 ), Sow barely covered 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), move to 50ºF (10ºC) under light; if no germ. in 4 wks, move to 60ºF (16ºC) , ( 12x10 ), herbaceous , blue , open wooded
P. attenuatus v. palustris , Proceri , ( 4 ), Sow barely covered 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), move to 50ºF (10ºC) under light; if no germ. in 4 wks, move to 60ºF (16ºC) , ( 16x10 ), herbaceous , blue , moist woodland
P. attenuatus v. pseudoprocerus , Proceri , ( 4 ), Sow barely covered 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), move to 50ºF (10ºC) under light; if no germ. in 4 wks, move to 60ºF (16ºC) , ( 9x10 ), herbaceous , blue , open wooded
P. atwoodii , Aurator , ( 4 ), Store seed @ 70ºF (21ºC) in a non-humid environment for 6 mo. Sow barely covered 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), move to 60ºF (16ºC) for germ. under light. , ( 16x5 ), herbaceous , blue, lavender , dryland
P. auriberbis , Aurator , ( 5 ), Surface sow 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), needs light for germ. , ( 8x4 ), herbaceous , lavender , dryland
P. australis , Penstemon , ( ? ), Sow barely covered 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), germinates @ 40ºF , ( 30x? ), herbaceous , red, varies , open wooded
P. azureus , Saccanthera , ( 6 ), Sow barely covered 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), move to 50ºF (10ºC) under light; if no germ. in 4 wks, move to 60ºF (16ºC) , ( 20x10 ), subshrub , blue , open wooded
P. baccharifolius , Baccharifolii , ( ? ), Sow barely covered 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), germinates @ 40ºF , ( 23x12 ), shrub , red , rocky cliff
P. barbatus , Elmigera , ( 3-8 ), Store seed @ 70ºF (21ºC) in a non-humid environment for 6 mo. Sow barely covered 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), move to 70ºF (21ºC) for germ. under light. , ( 18x6 ), mat , color varies , dryland
P. barbatus "Rondo" , Elmigera , ( 3-8 ), Store seed @ 70ºF (21ºC) in a non-humid environment for 6 mo. Sow barely covered 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), move to 70ºF (21ºC) for germ. under light. , ( 26x6 ), mat , color varies , dryland
P. barnebyi , Aurator , ( ? ), Store seed @ 70ºF (21ºC) in a non-humid environment for 6 mo. Sow barely covered 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), move to 60ºF (16ºC) for germ. under light. , ( 8x? ), herbaceous , violet , dryland
P. barrettiae , Dasanthera , ( 6 ), Surface sow 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), needs light for germ., move to 60ºF (16ºC) for germ. , ( 18x36 ), shrub , red, purple , rocky cliff
P. bicolor , Peltanthera , ( ? ), Store seed @ 70ºF (21ºC) in a non-humid environment for 6 mo. Sow barely covered 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), move to 60ºF (16ºC) for germ. under light. , ( 38w? ), herbaceous , pink , dryland
P. bolanius , Campanulati , ( ? ), Store seed @ 70ºF (21ºC) in a non-humid environment for 6 mo. Sow barely covered 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), move to 60ºF (16ºC) for germ. under light. , ( 27x? ), herbaceous , purple , dry upland
P. bracteatus , Anularius , ( 5 ), Sow barely covered 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), germinates at 40ºF under light. , ( 3x? ), herbaceous , blue , alpine
P. brandegei , Habroanthus , ( 5 ), Surface sow 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), needs light for germ. , ( 24x? ), herbaceous , blue , plains No
P. breviculus , Aurator , ( 5 ), Sow under thin cover 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC) , ( 15x4 ), herbaceous , blue, purple , open wooded
P. buckleyi , Anularius , ( 6 ), Store seed @ 70ºF (21ºC) in a non-humid environment for 6 mo. Sow barely covered 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), move to 60ºF (16ºC) for germ. under light. , ( 30x8 ), herbaceous , lavender , plains
P. caesius , Saccanthera , ( ? ), Sow under thin cover 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC) , ( 6x16 ), mat , purple, blue , dryland
P. caespitosus , Caespitosi , ( 4-8 ), Surface sow 12 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), needs light for germ. , ( 2x6 ), mat , blue , dry upland
P. caespitosus ssp. desertpicti , Caespitosi , ( 4-8 ), Surface sow 12 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), needs light for germ. , ( 1x6 ), mat , blue , dry upland
P. caespitosus ssp. suffruticosus , Caespitosi , ( 5 ), Surface sow 12 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), needs light for germ. , ( 2x6 ), herbaceous , blue , dry upland
P. calcareus , Aurator , ( 7 ), Sow barely covered 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), move to 50ºF (10ºC) under light; if no germ. in 4 wks, move to 60ºF (16ºC) , ( 36x? ), herbaceous , pink , rocky cliffs
P. californicus , Linarioides , ( ? ), Sow under thin cover 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC) , ( 6x? ), herbaceous , blue, purple , open wooded , yes
P. calycosus , Penstemon , ( 5 ), Sow barely covered 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), move to 50ºF (10ºC) under light; if no germ. in 4 wks, move to 60ºF (16ºC) , ( 36x? ), herbaceous , white, pink, varies , open wooded
P. campanulatus "Garnet" , Campanulati , ( 6 ), Sow barely covered 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), move to 50ºF (10ºC) under light; if no germ. in 4 wks, move to 60ºF (16ºC) , ( 16x? ), herbaceous , red , mixed
P. campanulatus v. campanulatus , Campanulati , ( 6 ), Sow barely covered 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), move to 50ºF (10ºC) under light; if no germ. in 4 wks, move to 60ºF (16ºC) , ( 30x? ), herbaceous , pink, varies , mixed
P. campanulatus v. chihuahuensis , Campanulati , ( 6 ), Sow barely covered 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), germinates @ 40ºF , ( 16x6 ), herbaceous , blue , Mexico , yes
P. campanulatus v. subglandulosus , Campanulati , ( 6 ), Sow barely covered 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), move to 50ºF (10ºC) under light; if no germ. in 4 wks, move to 60ºF (16ºC) , ( 16x6 ), herbaceous , blue , Mexico
P. canescens , Penstemon , ( 5 ), Sow barely covered 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), move to 50ºF (10ºC) under light; if no germ. in 4 wks, move to 60ºF (16ºC) , ( 24x? ), herbaceous , color varies , open wooded
P. cardinalis , Elmigera , ( 5-9 ), Surface sow 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), needs light for germ. , ( 24x16 ), herbaceous , red , dryland
P. cardwellii , Dasanthera , ( 4 ), Surface sow 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), needs light for germ. , ( 8x60 ), shrub , color varies , alpine
P. cardwellii "Roseus" , Dasanthera , ( 4 ), Surface sow 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), needs light for germ., move to 60ºF (16ºC) for germ. , ( 8x60 ), shrub , color varies , alpine
P. carnosus , Anularius , ( 4 ), Surface sow 12 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), needs light for germ. , ( 5x3 ), herbaceous , lavender , dryland
P. caryi , Habroanthus , ( 4 ), Sow barely covered 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), germinates at 40ºF under light. , ( 12x12 ), mat , blue, lavender , alpine
P. caudatis , Anularius , ( 4 ), Sow under thin cover 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC) , ( 24x12 ), herbaceous , blue, pink , plains
P. centranthifolius , Centranthifolii , ( 8 ), none , ( 32x6 ), herbaceous , scarlet , dryland
P. cerrosensis , Centranthifolii , ( 8 ), Store seed @ 70ºF (21ºC) in a non-humid environment for 6 mo. Sow barely covered 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), move to 60ºF (16ºC) for germ. under light. , ( 18x? ), herbaceous , scarlet , dryland
P. cinicola , Proceri , ( 4 ), Store seed @ 70ºF (21ºC) in a non-humid environment for 6 mo. Sow barely covered 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), move to 60ºF (16ºC) for germ. under light. , ( 8x14 ), herbaceous , blue, purple , dryland
P. clevelandii , Peltanthera , ( 6 ), Store seed @ 70ºF (21ºC) in a non-humid environment for 6 mo. Sow barely covered 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), move to 60ºF (16ºC) for germ. under light. , ( 17x12 ), herbaceous , pink, purple , dryland
P. clevelandii ssp. connatus , Peltanthera , ( 6 ), Surface sow 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), needs light for germ. , ( 16x12 ), herbaceous , pink, purple , dryland
P. clutei , Peltanthera , ( 4 ), Store seed @ 70ºF (21ºC) in a non-humid environment for 6 mo. Sow barely covered 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), move to 60ºF (16ºC) for germ. under light. , ( 28x12 ), herbaceous , pink , dryland
P. cobaea v. cobaea , Aurator , ( 5 ), Surface sow 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), needs light for germ. , ( 12x? ), herbaceous , white, purple , plains
P. cobaea v. purpureus , Aurator , ( 5 ), Surface sow 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), needs light for germ., move to 50ºF (10ºC) for germ. , ( 12x? ), herbaceous , white, purple , plains , yes
P. comarrhenus , Habroanthus , ( ? ), Store seed @ 70ºF (21ºC) in a non-humid environment for 6 mo. Sow barely covered 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), germinates @ 40ºF under light. , ( 48x? ), herbaceous , lavender, blue , dryland , yes
P. compactus , Habroanthus , ( 5 ), Store seed @ 70ºF (21ºC) in a non-humid environment for 6 mo. Sow barely covered 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), move to 60ºF (16ºC) for germ. under light. , ( 10x? ), herbaceous , blue , dryland
P. concinnus , Aurator , ( ? ), Store seed @ 70ºF (21ºC) in a non-humid environment for 6 mo. Sow barely covered 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), move to 60ºF (16ºC) for germ. under light. , ( 7x? ), herbaceous , blue, varies , dryland
P. confertus , Proceri , ( 5 ), Surface sow 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), needs light for germ., move to 50ºF (10ºC) for germ. , ( 5x3 ), mat , yellow, white , open wooded , yes
P. confusus , Centranthifoli , ( ? ), Store seed @ 70ºF (21ºC) in a non-humid environment for 6 mo. Sow barely covered 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), move to 60ºF (16ºC) for germ. under light. , ( 10x? ), herbaceous , purple , dryland
P. coriaceus , , ( ? ), No germ. methodology data. , ( ), , ,
P. crandallii , Caespitosi , ( 3-9 ), Surface sow 12 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), needs light for germ. , ( 10x30 ), shrub , blue , alpine
P. cusickii , Saccanthera , ( 5 ), Store seed @ 70ºF (21ºC) in a non-humid environment for 6 mo. Sow barely covered 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), move to 60ºF (16ºC) for germ. under light. , ( 18x8 ), herbaceous , lavender , dryland
P. cyananthus v. cyananthus , Habroanthus , ( 4 ), Sow under thin cover 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC) , ( 20x7 ), herbaceous , blue, lavender, violet , dry upland
P. cyananthus v. subglaber , Habroanthus , ( 4 ), Sow under thin cover 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC) , ( 26x12 ), herbaceous , blue, lavender, violet , dry upland
P. cyaneus , Habroanthus , ( 3 ), Sow under thin cover 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC) , ( 16x7 ), herbaceous , blue , dryland
P. cyanocaulis , Habroanthus , ( ? ), Sow under thin cover 12 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), move to 50ºF (10ºC) for germ. , ( 14x? ), herbaceous , blue , dryland , yes
P. cyanthophorus , Anularius , ( 4 ), Surface sow 12 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), needs light for germ. , ( 10x3 ), herbaceous , color varies , dryland , yes
P. dasyphyllus , Dentanthera , ( ? ), Sow under thin cover 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), move to 50ºF (10ºC) for germ. , ( 16x? ), herbaceous , blue , dryland
P. davidsonii , Dasanthera , ( 4 ), Surface sow 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), needs light for germ., move to 70ºF (21ºC) for germ. , ( 8x14 ), mat , lavender , alpine
P. deamii , Penstemon , ( 6 ), Sow barely covered 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), move to 50ºF (10ºC) under light; if no germ. in 4 wks, move to 60ºF (16ºC) , ( 26x? ), herbaceous , white , open wooded
P. deaveri , Habroanthus , ( ? ), No germ. methodology data. , ( ), , ,
P. debilis , Habroanthus , ( 5 ), Surface sow 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), needs light for germ. , ( 3x7 ), mat , white , dry upland
P. degeneri , Humiles , ( 5 ), Sow barely covered 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), move to 50ºF (10ºC) under light; if no germ. in 4 wks, move to 60ºF (16ºC) , ( 16x? ), herbaceous , blue , open wooded
P. deustus , Deusti , ( 5 ), Sow under thin cover 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), move to 50ºF (10ºC) for germ. , ( 12x12 ), herbaceous , white , dryland , yes
P. digitalis , Penstemon , ( 4 ), Surface sow 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), needs light for germ. , ( 40x? ), herbaceous , white , mixed
P. digitalis "Husker Red" , Penstemon , ( 3 ), Surface sow 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), needs light for germ. , ( 24x6 ), herbaceous , white , mixed
P. diphyllus , Serrulati , ( ? ), Sow under thin cover 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC) , ( 20x10 ), shrubby , lavender , dryland , yes
P. discolor , Linarioides , ( ? ), Store seed @ 70ºF (21ºC) in a non-humid environment for 6 mo. Sow barely covered 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), move to 60ºF (16ºC) for germ. under light. , ( 8x? ), mat , cream, lavender , dryland
P. dissectus , Dissecti , ( 6 ), Sow barely covered 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), move to 50ºF (10ºC) under light; if no germ. in 4 wks, move to 60ºF (16ºC) , ( 18x? ), herbaceous , purple, lavender , sand
P. distans , Aurator , ( ? ), Sow barely covered 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), move to 50ºF (10ºC) under light; if no germ. in 4 wks, move to 60ºF (16ºC) , ( 24x? ), herbaceous , blue, violet , open wooded
P. dolius , Aurator , ( 4 ), Surface sow 12 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), needs light for germ. , ( 8x? ), herbaceous , violet , dryland , yes
P. eatonii , Elmigera , ( 3-8 ), Surface sow 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), needs light for germ. , ( 36x24 ), herbaceous , scarlet , dryland
P. elegantulus , Humiles , ( 5 ), Sow barely covered 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), germinates at 40ºF under light. , ( 12x? ), herbaceous , blue, violet , alpine
P. ellipticus , Dasanthera , ( 4 ), Sow barely covered 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), germinates at 40ºF under light. , ( 6x18 ), mat , lavender , alpine
P. eriantherus v. argillosus , Aurator , ( 4 ), Sow under thin cover 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC) , ( 8x5 ), herbaceous , red, purple , plains , yes
P. eriantherus v. cleburnei , Aurator , ( 4 ), Sow under thin cover 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC) , ( 8x5 ), herbaceous , pink, lavender , plains , yes
P. eriantherus v. eriantherus , Aurator , ( 4 ), Sow under thin cover 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC) , ( 8x5 ), herbaceous , pink, lavender, blue , plains , yes
P. eriantherus v. redactus , Aurator , ( 4 ), Sow under thin cover 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC) , ( 8x5 ), herbaceous , pink, purple , plains , yes
P. eriantherus v. whitedii , Aurator , ( 5 ), Sow under thin cover 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC) , ( 8x5 ), herbaceous , purple, violet , plains , yes
P. euglaucus , Proceri , ( 4 ), Sow barely covered 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), move to 50ºF (10ºC) under light; if no germ. in 4 wks, move to 60ºF (16ºC) , ( 20x? ), mat , blue, lavender , open wooded
P. eximeus , , ( ? ), No germ. methodology data. , ( ), , ,
P. fasciculatus , Fasciculi , ( ? ), Sow barely covered 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), germinates at 40ºF under light. , ( 20x? ), mat , scarlet , alpine
P. fendleri , Anularius , ( 5 ), Store seed @ 70ºF (21ºC) in a non-humid environment for 6 mo. Sow barely covered 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), germinates @ 40ºF under light. , ( 24x? ), herbaceous , violet , plains , yes
P. filiformis , Saccanthera , ( ? ), Store seed @ 70ºF (21ºC) in a non-humid environment for 6 mo. Sow barely covered 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), move to 60ºF (16ºC) for germ. under light. , ( 20x? ), subshrub , blue , dryland
P. filisepalis , Fasciculi , ( ? ), Sow barely covered 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), move to 50ºF (10ºC) under light; if no germ. in 4 wks, move to 60ºF (16ºC) , ( 20x10 ), herbaceous , red , Mexico
P. flavescens , Proceri , ( 6 ), Sow barely covered 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), germinates at 40ºF under light. , ( 16x? ), herbaceous , yellow , alpine
P. floribundus , Saccanthera , ( 5 ), Sow barely covered 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), germinates at 40ºF under light. , ( 12x? ), herbaceous , blue , alpine
P. floridus v. austinii , Peltanthera , ( 6 ), Surface sow 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), needs light for germ. , ( 36x8 ), herbaceous , pink , desert
P. floridus v. floridus , Peltanthera , ( 6 ), Surface sow 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), needs light for germ. , ( 48x12 ), herbaceous , pink , desert
P. flowersii , Anularius , ( 5 ), Surface sow 12 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), needs light for germ. , ( 6x3 ), herbaceous , pink , badlands , yes
P. franklinii , Aurator , ( ? ), Store seed @ 70ºF (21ºC) in a non-humid environment for 6 mo. Sow barely covered 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), move to 60ºF (16ºC) for germ. under light. , ( 10x? ), herbaceous , lavender , dryland
P. fremontii , Habroanthus , ( 4 ), Surface sow 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), needs light for germ. , ( 10x? ), herbaceous , blue, purple , dryland
P. fruticiformis , Peltanthera , ( 7 ), Sow fresh seed @ 70ºF (21ºC), sow stored seed under thin cover 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), move to 50ºF (10ºC) under light; if no germ. in 4 wks, move to 60ºF (16ºC) , ( 14x12 ), shrub , white, varies , Death Valley
P. fruticosus "Purple Haze" , Dasanthera , ( 4 ), Sow under thin cover 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), move to 50ºF (10ºC) for germ. , ( 16x16 ), shrub , lavender , alpine
P. fruticosus v. fruticosis "Bald Mt." , Dasanthera , ( 4 ), Sow under thin cover 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), move to 50ºF (10ºC) for germ. , ( 16x16 ), shrub , lavender , alpine
P. fruticosus , Dasanthera , ( 4 ), Sow under thin cover 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), move to 50ºF (10ºC) for germ. , ( 16x16 ), herbaceous , lavender ,
P. gairdneri , Gairdneriani , ( 6 ), Surface sow 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), needs light for germ. , ( 5x3 ), mat , lavender, purple, rose , dryland
P. gentianoides , Fasciculi , ( 7 ), Sow barely covered 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), move to 50ºF (10ºC) under light; if no germ. in 4 wks, move to 60ºF (16ºC) , ( 60x? ), herbaceous , purple , Mexico
P. gentryi , Campanulati , ( ? ), Sow barely covered 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), move to 50ºF (10ºC) under light; if no germ. in 4 wks, move to 60ºF (16ºC) , ( 24x? ), herbaceous , lavender , Mexico
P. gibbensii , Habroanthus , ( 5 ), Store seed @ 70ºF (21ºC) in a non-humid environment for 6 mo. Sow barely covered 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), move to 60ºF (16ºC) for germ. under light. , ( 8x? ), herbaceous , blue , dryland
P. glaber ssp. alpinus , Habroanthus , ( 5 ), Surface sow 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), needs light for germ. , ( 24x? ), herbaceous , blue , plains , yes
P. glaber ssp. glaber , Habroanthus , ( 5 ), Surface sow 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), needs light for germ. , ( 26x16 ), herbaceous , blue, violet, pink , plains , yes
P. glabrescens v. glabrescens , Peltanthera , ( ? ), No germ. methodology data. , ( ), , ,
P. glabrescens v. taosensis , Ericopsis , ( 5 ), No germ. methodology data. , ( ), , ,
P. glandulosus v. chelanensis , Serrulati , ( ? ), Sow under thin cover 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC) , ( 36x10 ), herbaceous , lavender , dryland , yes
P. glandulosus v. glandulosus , Serrulati , ( ? ), Store seed @ 70ºF (21ºC) in a non-humid environment for 6 mo. Sow barely covered 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), move to 60ºF (16ºC) for germ. under light. , ( 36x? ), herbaceous , lavender , dryland
P. glaucinus , Proceri , ( 5 ), Sow barely covered 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), move to 50ºF (10ºC) under light; if no germ. in 4 wks, move to 60ºF (16ºC) , ( 14x? ), herbaceous , blue, purple , open wooded
P. globosus , Proceri , ( 6 ), Sow barely covered 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), germinates at 40ºF under light. , ( 24x? ), herbaceous , blue , alpine
P. goodrichii , Aurator , ( 5 ), Surface sow 12 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), needs light for germ. , ( 16x10 ), herbaceous , lavender , badlands
P. gormanii , Aurator , ( 6 ), Store seed @ 70ºF (21ºC) in a non-humid environment for 6 mo. Sow barely covered 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), move to 60ºF (16ºC) for germ. under light. , ( 12x? ), herbaceous , lavender , dryland
P. gracilentus , Saccanthera , ( 6 ), Sow barely covered 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), move to 50ºF (10ºC) under light; if no germ. in 4 wks, move to 60ºF (16ºC) , ( 28x12 ), open wooded , purple , open wooded
P. gracilis , Penstemon , ( 4 ), Store seed @ 70ºF (21ºC) in a non-humid environment for 6 mo. Sow barely covered 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), move to 60ºF (16ºC) for germ. under light. , ( 30x8 ), herbaceous , lilac , plains
P. grahamii , Aurator , ( 5 ), Store seed @ 70ºF (21ºC) in a non-humid environment for 6 mo. Sow barely covered 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), move to 60ºF (16ºC) for germ. under light. , ( 6x? ), herbaceous , lavender , dryland
P. grandiflorus , Anularius , ( 3 ), Surface sow 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), needs light for germ. , ( 48x12 ), herbaceous , pink, lavender, violet , plains
P. griffinii , Humiles , ( ? ), No germ. methodology data. , ( 20X? ), herbaceous , blue ,
P. grinnellii , Peltanthera , ( 6 ), Store seed @ 70ºF (21ºC) in a non-humid environment for 6 mo. Sow barely covered 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), move to 60ºF (16ºC) for germ. under light. , ( 18x24 ), shrub , lavender , dryland
P. guadalupensis , Aurator , ( 8 ), Store seed @ 70ºF (21ºC) in a non-humid environment for 6 mo. Sow barely covered 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), move to 60ºF (16ºC) for germ. under light. , ( 12X? ), herbaceous , white , dryland
P. hallii , Habroanthus , ( 3 ), Sow fresh seed @ 70ºF (21ºC), sow stored seed on surface 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC) under light. Germ. @ 40ºF (4ºC) , ( 4x4 ), herbaceous , violet , alpine
P. harbourii , Peltanthera , ( 3 ), Sow fresh seed @ 70ºF (21ºC), sow stored seed on surface 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC) under light. Germ. @ 40ºF (4ºC) , ( 6x20 ), mat , lavender , alpine
P. harringtonii , Anularius , ( 4 ), Sow barely covered 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), germinates at 40ºF under light. , ( 3x8 ), herbaceous , blue , alpine
P. hartwegii , Fasciculi , ( 9 ), Sow fresh seed @ 70ºF (21ºC), sow stored seed under thin cover 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), move to 50ºF (10ºC) under light; if no germ. in 4 wks, move to 60ºF (16ºC) , ( 60x? ), herbaceous , red, purple , Mexico
P. havardii , Havardiani , ( 5 ), Sow under thin cover 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), move to 50ºF (10ºC) for germ. , ( 30x12 ), herbaceous , red , rocky areas
P. haydenii , Anularius , ( 5 ), Sow barely covered 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), move to 50ºF (10ºC) under light; if no germ. in 4 wks, move to 60ºF (16ºC) , ( 48x? ), herbaceous , lavender , rocky
P. hendricksonii , Elmigera , ( 7 ), Sow barely covered 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), move to 50ºF (10ºC) under light; if no germ. in 4 wks, move to 60ºF (16ºC) , ( 24x? ), herbaceous , red, purple , open wooded
P. heterodoxus , Proceri , ( 4 ), Sow fresh seed @ 70ºF (21ºC), sow stored seed on surface 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC) under light. Germ. @ 40ºF (4ºC) , ( 6x8 ), shrub , violet , alpine
P. heterodoxus v. shastensis , Proceri , ( 4 ), Sow fresh seed @ 70ºF (21ºC), sow stored seed under thin cover 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), move to 50ºF (10ºC) under light; if no germ. in 4 wks, move to 60ºF (16ºC) , ( 20x8 ), herbaceous , blue, purple , moist upland
P. heterophyllus , Saccanthera , ( 5 ), Sow barely covered 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), germinates at 40ºF under light. , ( 12x12 ), subshrub , blue , alpine
P. hidalgensis , Perfoliatus , ( 7 ), Sow barely covered 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), move to 50ºF (10ºC) under light; if no germ. in 4 wks, move to 60ºF (16ºC) , ( 72x? ), herbaceous , red, purple , open wooded
P. hintonii , Ericopsis , ( 5 ), No germ. methodology data. , ( ), , ,
P. hirsutus , Penstemon , ( 4 ), Sow under thin cover 3 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC) , ( 24X6 ), herbaceous , white , lowland
P. hirsutus "Minimus" , Penstemon , ( 4 ), Sow under thin cover 3 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC) , ( 15x6 ), herbaceous , lavender , lowland
P. hirsutus "Pygmaeus" , Penstemon , ( 4 ), Sow under thin cover 3 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC) , ( 4x4 ), herbaceous , lavender , lowland
P. humilus , Humiles , ( 5 ), Surface sow 4 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC) under light , ( 24x4 ), herbaceous , blue, violet , dryland , yes
P. idahoensis , Habroanthus , ( 5 ), Sow barely covered 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), germinates at 40ºF under light. , ( 8x4 ), herbaceous , blue, violet , alpine
P. imberbis , Elmigera , ( ? ), Store seed @ 70ºF (21ºC) in a non-humid environment for 6 mo. Sow barely covered 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), move to 60ºF (16ºC) for germ. under light. , ( 24x? ), herbaceous , color varies , dryland
P. immanifestus , Anularius , ( ? ), Sow under thin cover 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC) , ( 30x? ), herbaceous , lavender , desert , yes
P. incertus , Peltanthera , ( 7 ), Sow under thin cover 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), move to 50ºF (10ºC) for germ. , ( 24x16 ), shrub , blue , dryland
P. inflatus , Humiles , ( ? ), Sow barely covered 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), move to 50ºF (10ºC) under light; if no germ. in 4 wks, move to 60ºF (16ºC) , ( 24x? ), herbaceous , blue , open wooded
P. isophyllus , Fasciculatus , ( ? ), Sow barely covered 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), move to 50ºF (10ºC) under light; if no germ. in 4 wks, move to 60ºF (16ºC) , ( 36x? ), herbaceous , red , open wooded
P. jamesii , Aurator , ( 4 ), Store seed @ 70ºF (21ºC) in a non-humid environment for 6 mo. Sow barely covered 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), germinates @ 40ºF under light. , ( 20x8 ), herbaceous , lavender , plains , yes
P. janishiae , Aurator , ( 5 ), Scarify seed, Surface sow 8 wks @ 40ºF (4ºC), needs light for germ. , ( 10x6 ), herbaceous , pink, purple , dryland


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