Annual/Biennial Seed Germination Database
E to M

Names in green are nicknames. Names in italics are synonyms.  Type= a/p, for example, indicates that the plant is grown as an annual in some zones and as a perennial in others.   Only representative or most popular species are included within each of the genera listed.  For species not listed, select the seed sowing instructions for any species of the same type, i.e. an, ha, hha, bi, bip, or a/p within that genus.

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Ecballium elaterium, squirting cucumber, Elaterium cordifolium, Momordica elaterium, Type=a/p, sow @ 70 to 75ºF, 7-14d

Eccremocarpus scaber , Chilean glory flower , ,Type= a/p , , sow @ 60ºF , 21-60d

Echinocystis lobata , wild cucumber , Micrampelis lobata,Type= a/p , sow @ 65 to 70ºF , 5-10d , weedy

Echinops exaltatus, globe thistle,, Type=bi, direct sow outdoors in May, thin to 6", transplant in Sept.

Echium candicans , pride of Madeira , ,Type= bi , , sow @ 70ºF , 21-40d ,

Echium pininana , , ,Type= bi , , sow @ 70ºF , 21-40d ,

Echium plantagineum , salvation jane , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF , 21-40d ,

Echium russicum , , ,Type= bi , , sow @ 70ºF , 21-40d ,

Echium simplex , pride of Tenerife , ,Type= bi , , sow @ 70ºF , 21-40d ,

Echium vulgare , viper's bugloss , E. elegans,Type= bi , , sow @ 70ºF , 21-40d

Echium wildpretii , , E. bourgaeanum ,Type= bi , , sow @ 70ºF , 21-40d ,

Eleusine coracana , ragi , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d ,

Elsholtzia ciliata , crested latesummer mint , ,Type= an , , sow in light @ 68ºF , 14-30d ,

Elsholtzia densa , , ,Type= an , , sow in light @ 68ºF , 14-30d ,

Emilia coccinea , scarlet tasselflower , E. saggitata,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF , 8-15d

Emmenanthe pendulifera,,, Type=an, direct sow outdoors in Mar., thin to 6"

Epilobium parviflorum , smallflower hairy willowherb , ,Type= a/p , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d , invasive weed

Eragrostis tef , teff , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF, if no germ. give 4 wks @ 39ºF , 10-21d ,

Eragrostis tenella , Japanese lovegrass , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF, if no germ. give 4 wks @ 39ºF , 10-21d ,

Erigeron acer , , ,Type= a/b , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d ,

Erigeron karvinskianus , Latin american fleabane , ,Type= a/p , , sow @ 70ºF , 10-20d

Erigeron philadelphicus, marsh fleabane, , Type=bi, , sow 90d @ 39ºF, move to 70ºF for germ., 10-20d, weedy

Erigeron strigosus, daisy fleabane, , Type=bi, , sow 90d @ 39ºF, move to 70ºF for germ., 10-20d, invasive weed, trouble-maker

Eriogonum annuum,,, Type=an, direct sow outdoors in Mar., thin to 12"

Eriophyllum wallacei,,, Type=an, direct sow outdoors in Sept., thin to 2"

Eritrichium nanum , alpine forget-me-not , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d ,

Erodium cicutarium , storksbill , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF , 10-20d , invasive weed

Erodium gruinum , Iranian stork's bill , ,Type= a/b , , sow @ 70ºF , 10-20d

Eryngium foetidum , Culantro , Type = a , sow @ 68ºF , 7 - 14d

Eryngium giganteum , Miss Wilmott's ghost , ,Type= bi , , sow 4 wks @ 68ºF, 6 wks @ 39ºF, germ. @ 53ºF , 10-20d

Eryngium pandanifolium , , ,Type= bi , , sow 4 wks @ 68ºF, 6 wks @ 39ºF, germ. @ 53ºF , 10-20d ,

Erysimum capitatum , sanddune wallflower , E. grandiflorum, Cheiranthus capitatus,Type= bi , , sow @ 68ºF , 10-21d ,

Erysimum cheiri , wormseed mustard , ,Type= an , , sow @ 68ºF , 10-21d ,

Erysimum perofskianum , Afghan erysimum , ,Type= a/p , , sow @ 68ºF , 10-21d ,

Erysimum pumilum , , E. helveticum ,Type= bi , , sow @ 68ºF , 10-21d ,

Erysimum x allionii , Siberian wallflower , ,Type= bi , , sow @ 68ºF , 10-21d ,

Eschscholzia caespitosa , tufted poppy , ,Type= an , , direct sow in fall for spring germ. @ 70ºF , 10-20d , resents transplanting

Eschscholzia californica , California poppy , ,Type= an , , direct sow in fall for spring germ. @ 70ºF , 10-20d , resents transplanting

Eschscholzia mexicana , California poppy , ,Type= an , , direct sow in fall for spring germ. @ 70ºF , 10-20d , resents transplanting

Eucharidium breweri , pink ribbons , Euchardia breweri ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d ,

Eucnide bartonioides , yellow stingbush , Mentzelia bartonioides, Microsperma bartonioides,Type= an , , sow @ 60 to 70ºF , 21-3-d

Eupatorium fistulosum , Joe pye weed , ,Type= bi , , sow 4 wks @ 68ºF, 6 wks @ 39º, germ @ 70ºF in light , 10-20d ,

Eupatorium maculatum , spotted joe pye weed , ,Type= bi , , sow 4 wks @ 68ºF, 6 wks @ 39º, germ @ 70ºF in light , 10-20d ,

Euphorbia cyathophora , Mexican fire plant , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d , resents transplanting after 10" high

Euphorbia drummondii , , ,Type= a/p , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d ,

Euphorbia helioscopia , madwoman's milk , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d , invasive weed

Euphorbia heterophylla , Mexican fireplant , Poinsettia heterophylla,Type= hha , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d

Euphorbia lathyris , gopher spurge, caper spurge , Tithymalus lathyrus,Type= bi , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d , invasive weed

Euphorbia marginata , snow on the mountain , E. variegata, Lepadenia marginata,Type= hha , , sow @ 70ºF in situ , 20-30d , resents transplanting

Euphorbia palustris , , ,Type= a/p , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d

Euphrasia officinalis, eyebright,, Type=an, direct sow outdoors in Mar., thin to 3"

Euploca convolvulacea,, Heliotropium convolvulaceum, Type=an, sow @ 55 to 60ºF, 7-14d

Eustoma exaltatum , catchfly prairiegentian , ,Type= a/p , , surface sow @ 77ºF in light, grow on @ 60ºF , 10-20d ,

Eustoma grandiflorum , showy prairiegentian , ,Type= a/b , , surface sow @ 77ºF in light, grow on @ 60ºF , 10-20d ,

Eustoma russellianus , lisianthus , Lisianthus russellianum,Type= an , , surface sow @ 77ºF in light, grow on @ 60ºF , 10-20d

Exacum affine , , ,Type= an , , surface sow @ 75ºF in light , 15-20d

Fedia cornucopiae, African valerian, F. scorpioides, Valeriana cornucopiae, Type=an, direct sow outdoors in Mar., thin to 6"

Felicia amoena , , ,Type= a/p , , sow @ 70ºF , 30d

Felicia australis , , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF , 30d ,

Felicia bergeriana , kingfisher daisy , Aster bergerianus,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF , 30d

Felicia heterophylla , , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF , 30d ,

Felicia minima , , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF , 30d ,

Felicia tenella , , F. fragilis,Type= a/p , , sow @ 70ºF , 30d

Festuca incrassata , , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d

Fibigia clypeata , , ,Type= bi , , sow @ 68ºF, if no germ. move to 39ºF for 4w, recycle , 10-21d

Foeniculum vulgare , fennel , ,Type= a/p , , sow @ 70ºF in the dark , 7-14d , weedy

Froelichia Floridana,,, Type=an, direct sow outdoors in Apr., thin to 18"

Fumaria officinalis , fumitory , ,Type= an , , direct sow fresh seed outdoors , variable , invasive weed

Gaillardia amblyodon , maroon blanketflower , ,Type= an , , sow in light @ 70 to 75ºF, reduce temps @ night , 15-20d

Gaillardia pulchella , blanket flower , G. drummondii, G. bicolor,Type= an , , sow in light @ 70 to 75ºF, reduce temps @ night , 15-20d

Galactites tomentosa,,, Type=bi, direct sow outdoors in Sept., thin to 18"

Gamolepis tagetes,,G. annua, Type=an, sow @ 60 to 65ºF, grow on a bit cooler

Gaura biennis , biennial gaura , ,Type= a/b , , sow @ 70ºF , 15-30d ,

Gazania hybrida , , ,Type= a/p , , sow at 60 to 65ºF in the dark, grow cool , 8-21d

Gazania krebsiana , , ,Type= a/p , , sow at 60 to 65ºF in the dark, grow cool , 8-21d ,

Gazania liechtensteinii , , ,Type= an , , sow at 60 to 65ºF in the dark, grow cool , 8-21d ,

Gazania linearis , treasureflower , ,Type= an , , sow at 60 to 65ºF in the dark, grow cool , 8-21d

Gentiana crinata, fringed gentian, , Type=bi, , sow @ 70ºF, 7-14d

Gentiana tenuifolia , , ,Type= a/p , , sow @ 68ºF, if no germ. move to 39ºF for 4w, recycle , 10-21d ,

Gentianella campestris , , ,Type= bi , , direct sow outdoors, or sow @ 70ºF , 30-400d ,

Gentianella germanica , , ,Type= bi , , direct sow outdoors, or sow @ 70ºF , 30-400d ,

Gentianella utriculosa , , ,Type= bi , , direct sow outdoors, or sow @ 70ºF , 30-400d ,

Gentianopsis crinita , greater fringedgentian , ,Type= a/b , , surface sow outdoors, thin out seedlings , 21-30d , resents root disturbance

Gentianopsis thermalis , Rocky mountain fringedgentian , ,Type= an , , surface sow outdoors, thin out seedlings , 21-30d , resents root disturbance

Geraea canescens, desert sunflower, Encelia eriocephala, Type=an, direct sow outdoors in Apr., thin to 9"

Geranium columbinum , long-stalked cranesbill , ,Type= an , , direct sow outdoors, or sow @ 70ºF , 30-400d ,

Geranium dissectum , wrinkle-seeded cranesbill , ,Type= an , , direct sow outdoors, or sow @ 70ºF , 30-400d , invasive weed

Geranium lucidum , shining geranium , ,Type= an , , direct sow outdoors, or sow @ 70ºF , 30-400d ,

Geranium maderense , , ,Type= a/p , , direct sow outdoors, or sow @ 70ºF , 30-400d ,

Geranium molle , dovefoot geranium , ,Type= an , , direct sow outdoors, or sow @ 70ºF , 30-400d , invasive weed

Geranium pusillum , small geranium , ,Type= an , , direct sow outdoors, or sow @ 70ºF , 30-400d ,

Geranium robertianum , herb robert , Robertiella robertianum,Type= a/b , , direct sow outdoors, or sow @ 70ºF , 30-400d , invasive weed

Gerardia purpurea,, Agalinis purpurea, Type=an, sow @ 55 to 60ºF in the greenhouse in Feb.

Gerbera jamesonii , Transvaal daisy , ,Type= a/p , , surface sow @ 75ºF in light , 7-14d , stick seed vertically into the media

Gilia achilleifolia , California gilia , G. chamissonis,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF, or direct sow , 15-21d ,

Gilia capitata , bluehead gilia , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF, or direct sow , 15-21d ,

Gilia latiflora v davyi , hollyleaf gilia , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF, or direct sow , 15-21d ,

Gilia leptantha , fineflower gilia , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF, or direct sow , 15-21d

Gilia thurberi , El Paso skyrocket , Ipomopsis thurberi ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF, or direct sow , 15-21d ,

Gilia tricolor , bird's eye , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF, or direct sow , 15-21d

Githopsis specularioides,,, Type=an, direct sow outdoors in Mar., thin to 3"

Glaucium corniculatum , blackspot hornpoppy , G. phoeniceum, G. rubrum,Type= bi , , sow @ 60 to 65ºF in the dark, or direct sow , 14-21d ,

Glaucium flavum , yellow hornpoppy , G. luteum, G. fulvum,Type= bi , , sow @ 60 to 65ºF in the dark, or direct sow , 14-21d

Gnaphalium decurrens, clammy everlasting,, Type=a/b, direct sow outdoors in Mar., thin to 9"

Godetia whitneyi , farewell to spring , Clarkia amoena ssp. whitneyi , G. grandiflora,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d

Gomphrena canescens , , ,Type= a/p , , sow in light @ 70 to 75ºF , 7-14d , do not store seed below 60ºF

Gomphrena decumbens , arrasa con todo , G. serrata ,Type= an , , sow in light @ 70 to 75ºF , 7-14d , do not store seed below 60ºF

Gomphrena dispersa , arrasa con todo , ,Type= an , , sow in light @ 70 to 75ºF , 7-14d , do not store seed below 60ºF

Gomphrena globosa , globe amaranth , ,Type= an , , sow in light @ 70 to 75ºF , 7-14d , do not store seed below 60ºF

Gomphrena haageana , Rio Grande globe amaranth , G. aurantiaca,Type= an , , sow in light @ 70 to 75ºF , 7-14d , do not store seed below 60ºF

Gossypium herbaceum , Levant cotton , ,Type= a/p , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d

Gossypium hirsutum , cotton , ,Type= a/p , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d

Grammanthes dichotoma,, G. gentianoides, Type=hha, surface sow @ 65 to 70ºF

Gratiola aurea, golden hedge hyssop,, Type=an, direct sow outdoors in Mar., thin to 6"

Grindelia lanceolata, gum plant,, Type=bi, direct sow outdoors in May, thin to 24"

Gynandropsis pentaphylla, cat's whiskers,, Type=an, sow @ 65 to 70ºF, 5-10d

Gypsophila elegans , baby's breath , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-18d ,

Gypsophila muralis , low babysbreath , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-18d ,

Haplopappus rehderii , , ,Type= a/p , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-30d

Hebenstreitia comosa,,, Type=a/p, sow @ 65 to 70ºF, 5-10d

Hedeoma hispida, mock pennyroyal, , type=an, , sow in light @ 70ºF, 7-14d

Hedeoma pulegioides , American pennyroyal , ,Type= an , , sow in light @ 70ºF , 7-14d

Hedysarum coronarium, French honeysuckle,, Type=bi, direct sow outdoors in May, thin to 18"

Helenium tenuifolium,,, Type=an, direct sow outdoors in Mar., 21d, thin to 6"

Helianthus angustifolius , swamp sunflower , ,Type= bip , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d ,

Helianthus annuus , sunflower , H. lenticularis,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d ,

Helianthus argophyllus , silverleaf sunflower , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d

Helianthus debilis , cucumberleaf sunflower , H. cucumerifolius,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d

Helichrysum bracteatum , strawflower , H. macranthum,Type= an , , surface sow @ 75ºF in light, grow on @ 65ºF , 7-14d

Helichrysum foetidum , stinking strawflower , Gnaphalium foetidum,Type= bi , , surface sow @ 75ºF in light, grow on @ 65ºF , 7-14d

Helichrysum lindleyii , , ,Type= an , , surface sow @ 75ºF in light, grow on @ 65ºF , 7-14d ,

Helichrysum subulifolium , , ,Type= an , , surface sow @ 75ºF in light, grow on @ 65ºF , 7-14d

Heliophila coronopifolia , , ,Type= an , , sow @ 60 to 65ºF , 14-21d ,

Heliophila longifolia , , ,Type= an , , sow @ 60 to 65ºF , 14-21d ,

Heliophila rigidiuscula , , ,Type= an , , sow @ 60 to 65ºF , 14-21d ,

Heliotropium arborescens , cherry pie plant , H. peruvianum,Type= a/p , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d

Heliotropium indicum , Indian heliotrope , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d ,

Helipterum muelleri , immortelle, ,Type= an , , sow @ 72ºF , 7-14d

Helipterum roseum , acroclinium , Acroclinium roseum, Roccardia rosea,Type= an , , sow @ 72ºF , 14-20d

Heracleum mantegazzianum , giant hogweed , ,Type= bip , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d , invasive weed

Herniaria glabra , smooth herniary , ,Type= a/p , , sow @ 70ºF under very thin cover , 7-14d

Herpetospermum grandiflorum,,, Type=hha, sow @ 75 to 80ºF, 5-10d

Hesperis matronalis , dame's rocket , H. nivea,Type= bi , , sow in light @ 70ºF, lower temps at night , 14-28d , weedy

Heterospermum pinnatum,,, Type=hha, sow @ 60 to 65ºF, poor dry soils

Heterotheca subaxillaris , telegraph plant , H. latifolia ,Type= a/b , , sow @ 70ºF , 3-10d

Hibiscus acetosella , African rosemallow , ,Type= a/p , scratch + soak , sow @ 75 to 80ºF , 15-30d

Hibiscus cannabinus , brown indianhemp , ,Type= hha , scratch + soak , sow @ 75 to 80ºF , 15-30d

Hibiscus sabdariffa , roselle , H. rosella,Type= a/p , scratch + soak , sow @ 75 to 80ºF , 15-30d

Hibiscus trionum , flower-of-an-hour , H. africanus, H. vesicarius,Type= a/b , scratch + soak , sow @ 75 to 80ºF , 15-30d

Hippocrepis multisiliquosa, horseshoe vetch,, Type=an, direct sow outdoors in Sept., thin to 3"

Hordeum californicum , , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d

Hordeum jubatum , squirrel's tail grass , ,Type= a/p , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d

Hordeum vulgare , barley , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d

Houstonia minima,,, Type=an, direct sow outdoors in Mar., do not thin

Humea elegans,,, Type=bi, sow in coldframe in July, overwinter in the greenhouse @ 50 to 55ºF, set out in June 36" apart

Humulus japonicus, hop,, Type=a/p, sow @ 60 to 65ºF, 7-14d

Hunnemannia fumariifolia , Mexican tulip poppy , ,Type= a/p , , sow @ 70 to 75ºF , 15-20d

Hutchinsia stylosa,, Iberis stylosa, Type=a/b, direct sow outdoors in May, thin to 3"

Hydrophyllum appendiculatum, water leaf,, Type=bi, direct sow outdoors in May, thin to 6"

Hymenopappus carolinensis,, H. scabiosaeus, Type=bi, direct sow outdoors in May, thin to 9"

Hyoscyamus albus , white henbane , ,Type= a/b , , direct sow outdoors , 14-40d

Hyoscyamus niger , henbane , ,Type= a/b , , direct sow outdoors , 14-40d

Hypecoum grandiflorum,,, Type=an, direct sow outdoors in Mar., 21d, thin to 6"

Hypericum japonicum , , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF, if no germ. give 4wks @ 39ºF , 10-21d

Hypoestes phyllostachya , polka dot plant , ,Type= a/p , , sow @ 72ºF , 7-14d ,

Iberis amara , annual candytuft , I. coronaria,Type= an , , sow @ 68 to 85ºF, erratic germ. , 10-30d

Iberis umbellata , globe candytuft , ,Type= an , , sow @ 68 to 85ºF, erratic germ. , 10-30d

Ibicella lutea , yellow unicornplant , Proboscidea lutea, Martynia lutea,Type= an , peel off coats , sow in darkness @ 70ºF , 7-14d

Impatiens balfourii , Balfour's touch-me-not , ,Type= a/p , , direct sow fresh seed outdoors , 180-400d ,

Impatiens balsamina , garden balsam , ,Type= hha , , sow @ 70ºF under thin cover , 8-10d , grow on @ 60ºF

Impatiens biflora , jewelweed , I. fulva,Type= an , , surface sow @ 39ºF, move to room temp after 90 days , 7-20d ,

Impatiens glanduligera , ornamental jewelweed , I roylei,Type= an , , direct sow fresh seed outdoors , 180-400d , invasive weed

Impatiens noli-tangere , Western touch-me-not , ,Type= an , , direct sow fresh seed outdoors , 180-400d ,

Impatiens walleriana , buzzy lizzy , ,Type= a/p , , surface sow in warm light @ 77ºF, grow on @ 65ºF , 7-20d

Incarvillea sinensis , , ,Type= a/p , , sow @ 60ºF , 10-20d

Indigofera hirsuta , roughhairy indigo , ,Type= a/b , nick or grind , sow @ 70ºF , 3-10d

Indigofera linifolia , , ,Type= a/p , nick or grind , sow @ 70ºF , 3-10d ,

Indigofera suffruticosa , anil de pasto , ,Type= a/p , nick or grind , sow @ 70ºF , 3-10d

Inula bifrons,,, Type=bi, direct sow outdoors in May, thin to 6"

Ionopsidium acaule , false diamondflower , Cochlearia acaulis,Type= an , , direct sow when soil temp reaches 60ºF , 14-21d

Ipomoea alba , moonflower , ,Type= an , nick + soak 2/n , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d ,

Ipomoea coccinea , red morning glory , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d ,

Ipomoea lobata , Spanish flag , Quamoclit lobata ,Type= a/p , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d ,

Ipomoea quamoclit , cypress vine , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d ,

Ipomoea tricolor , morning glory , ,Type= a/p , soak overnite , sow @ 65 to 70ºF , 7-14d , resents transplanting

Ipomopsis aggregata , skyrocket gilia , ,Type= bi , , sow @ 70ºF daytime, 60ºF at night , 7-14d

Ipomopsis longiflora , flaxflowered gilia , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF daytime, 60ºF at night , 7-14d

Ipomopsis rubra , standing cypress , ,Type= a/p , , sow @ 70ºF daytime, 60ºF at night , 7-14d ,

Ipomopsis spicata , spiked gilia , ,Type= bi , , sow @ 70ºF daytime, 60ºF at night , 7-14d ,

Isatis tinctoria , woad , ,Type= bi , , direct sow when soil temp reaches 50ºF , 14-40d ,

Isotoma hypocrateriformis , , ,Type= an , , sow in light @ 70ºF , 7-14d

Jacquemontia tamnifolia,,, Type=hha, sow @ 60 to 65ºF, thin to 9"

Jasione heldreichii , , ,Type= bip , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-21d

Jasione montana , sheepbit , ,Type= a/b , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-21d

Kalanchoe tomentosa , panda plant , ,Type= a/b , , sow in light @ 70ºF , 14-30d ,

Kallstroemia grandiflora , Arizona poppy , ,Type= an , , sow @ 60 to 65ºF , 14-21d

Kickxia spuria,, Linaria spuria, Type=an, direct sow outdoors in Mar., 21d, thin to 6"

Klugia notoniana,,, Type=an, sow @ 70 to 75ºF, raise in moist atmosphere

Knautia saragavensis , , ,Type= an , , sow in light @ 70ºF , 7-14d ,

Kochia scoparia , burning bush , ,Type= an , , surface sow in light @ 68ºF , 7-14d

Krigia virginica, dwarf dandelion, Cynthia virginica, Type=an, direct sow outdoors in Mar., thin to 4"

Lablab purpureus , hyacinth bean vine , Dolichos lablab ,Type= an , soak o/n , sow @ 70ºF , 7-30d , germ. can be erratic

Lactuca canadensis, tall wild lettuce, , type=a/b, , sow 90d @ 39ºF, move to 70ºF in light for germ., 7-14d

Lactuca ludoviciana, wild lettuce, , type=bi, , sow 90d @ 39ºF, move to 70ºF in light for germ., 7-14d

Lactuca saligna , willow lettuce , ,Type= a/b , , surface sow @ 70ºF in light , 7-14d ,

Lactuca sativa , lettuce , ,Type= a/b , , surface sow @ 70ºF in light , 7-14d ,

Lactuca serriola , prickly lettuce , L. scariola ,Type= a/b , , surface sow @ 70ºF in light , 7-14d ,

Lactuca virosa , bitter lettuce , ,Type= bi , , surface sow @ 70ºF in light , 7-14d , invasive weed

Lagenaria siceraria, bottle gourd, L. vulgaris, L. leucantha, Type=an, sow @ 75 to 80ºF, 4-8d, grow on @ 65 to 70ºF

Lagerstroemia indica , crepe myrtle , ,Type= a/p , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d ,

Lagurus ovatus , hare's tail grass , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d

Lallemantia canescens,, Dracocephalum canescens, Type=bi, direct sow outdoors in Mar., thin to 6"

Langloisia setosissima,,, Type=an, direct sow outdoors in Mar., thin to 3"

Lantana camara , lantana , ,Type= a/p , , sow @ 75ºF , 50-120d

Lasthenia chrysostoma , California goldfields , Chrysostoma californica ,Type= an , , direct sow, thin to 4" , 15-25d

Lasthenia glabrata , yellowray goldfields , ,Type= an , , direct sow, thin to 4" , 15-25d ,

Lathyrus angulatus , angled peavine , ,Type= an , nick + soak 2/n , sow @ 70ºF in the dark , 10-20d ,

Lathyrus annuus , , ,Type= an , nick + soak 2/n , sow @ 70ºF in the dark , 10-20d ,

Lathyrus aphaca , yellow peavine , ,Type= an , nick + soak 2/n , sow @ 70ºF in the dark , 10-20d

Lathyrus chloranthus , , ,Type= an , nick + soak 2/n , sow @ 70ºF in the dark , 10-20d ,

Lathyrus clymenum , , ,Type= an , nick + soak 2/n , sow @ 70ºF in the dark , 10-20d ,

Lathyrus hierosolymitanus , , ,Type= an , nick + soak 2/n , sow @ 70ºF in the dark , 10-20d ,

Lathyrus hirsutus , singletary peavine , ,Type= a/p , nick + soak 2/n , sow @ 70ºF in the dark , 10-20d ,

Lathyrus nissolia , peavine , ,Type= an , nick + soak 2/n , sow @ 70ºF in the dark , 10-20d ,

Lathyrus ochrus , , ,Type= an , nick + soak 2/n , sow @ 70ºF in the dark , 10-20d

Lathyrus odoratus , sweetpea peavine , ,Type= an , nick + soak 2/n , sow @ 70ºF in the dark , 10-20d

Lathyrus sativus , white peavine , ,Type= an , nick + soak 2/n , sow @ 70ºF in the dark , 10-20d

Lathyrus splendens , sweet pea , ,Type= an , nick + soak 2/n , sow @ 70ºF in the dark , 10-20d

Lathyrus tingitanus , Tangier scarlet pea , ,Type= an , nick + soak 2/n , sow @ 70ºF in the dark , 10-20d ,

Laurentia axillaris , , ,Type= an , , sow @ 75ºF , 30-60d ,

Lavandula multifida , , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF, if no germ. give 4 wks @ 39ºF , 7-14d ,

Lavatera cachemiriana , , ,Type= a/p , , sow @ 70ºF , 15-20d ,

Lavatera trimestris , , L. rosea,Type= an , , sow @ 72ºF , 5-10d ,

Lawrencella davenportii , , ,Type= an , , sow @ 65 to 75ºF , 21-30d ,

Layia elegans , tidy tips , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70 to 75ºF , 8-30d ,

Layia glandulosa , whitedaisy tidytips , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70 to 75ºF , 8-30d ,

Layia platyglossa , coastal tidytips , Callichroa platyglossa,Type= an , , sow @ 70 to 75ºF , 8-30d

Leavenworthia michauxii,, L. aurea, Type=an, direct sow outdoors in Mar., thin to 3"

Legousia speculum-veneris , European venus' lookingglass , ,Type= an , , sow in light @ 70ºF , 5-10d ,

Leonotis nepetiifolia , Christmas candlestick , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d ,

Leonurus artemisia , honeyweed , L. sibiricus ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d

Lepidium campestre , field cress , ,Type= a/b , , sow @ 70ºF , 5-14d ,

Lepidium fremontii , desert pepperweed , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF , 5-14d ,

Lepidium menziesii , Menzie's pepperweed , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF , 5-14d ,

Lepidium ruderale , fetid peppergrass , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF , 5-14d ,

Lepidium sativum , garden cress , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF , 5-14d ,

Leptosiphon hybridum , , ,Type= an , , sow @ 55 to 65ºF , 15-21d ,

Lespedeza stipulacea , Korean bush clover , ,Type= an , nick or grind , sow @ 70ºF , 5-20d ,

Lesquerella gordonii , Gordon's bladderpod , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF , 5-20d ,

Lesquerella wardii , Ward's bladderpod , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF , 5-20d

Lessingia leptoclada,,, Type=an, direct sow outdoors in Mar., thin to 6"

Leucheria senecioides,,, Type=an, sow @ 60 to 65ºF, thin to 6"

Limnanthes douglasii , poached egg plant, meadow foam ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF , 14-21d

Limonium aureum , , ,Type= a/p , , sow in darkness @ 65 to 70ºF , 10-21d ,

Limonium sinuatum , wavyleaf sealavender , Statice sinuata,Type= an , , sow in darkness @ 65 to 70ºF , 10-21d

Linanthus floribundus , manyflower deserttrumpets , ,Type= an , , direct sow outdoors , 15-21d ,

Linanthus grandiflorus , largeflower deserttrumpets , ,Type= an , , direct sow outdoors , 15-21d

Linaria amethystea , , ,Type= an , , sow @ 60ºF , 7-14d ,

Linaria canadensis, blue toadflax, , Type=a/b, , sow @ 60ºF, 7-14d

Linaria maroccana , Moroccan toadflax , ,Type= an , , sow @ 60ºF , 7-14d ,

Linaria reticulata , purplenet toadflax , ,Type= an , , sow @ 60ºF , 7-14d

Lindheimera texana,,, Type=an, sow @ 60 to 65ºF, 7-14d

Linum grandiflorum , flax , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d ,

Linum sulcatum, grooved flax, , Type=an, , sow @ 70ºF, 7-14d

Linum usitatissimum , common flax , ,Type= an , , direct sow outdoors, or sow @ 70ºF , variable

Loasa triphylla v volcanica , chile nettle, ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-30d ,

Lobelia erinus , edging lobelia , ,Type= a/p , , surface sow in light @ 70 to 80ºF , 7-14d , grow on @ 60ºF

Lobelia heterophylla , , ,Type= an , , surface sow @ 39ºF, after 90 days, move to 75ºF in light, grow on @ 65ºF , 7-14d ,

Lobelia inflata , Indian tobacco , ,Type= an , , surface sow @ 39ºF, after 90 days, move to 75ºF in light, grow on @ 65ºF , 7-14d ,

Lobelia rhombifolia , , ,Type= an , , surface sow @ 39ºF, after 90 days, move to 75ºF in light, grow on @ 65ºF , 7-14d ,

Lobelia rhytidosperma , , ,Type= an , , surface sow @ 39ºF, after 90 days, move to 75ºF in light, grow on @ 65ºF , 7-14d ,

Lobelia speciosa , lobelia , ,Type= a/p , , surface sow @ 39ºF, after 90 days, move to 75ºF in light, grow on @ 65ºF , 7-14d ,

Lobelia spicata, pale lobelia, , Type=an, , surface sow @ 70ºF, 7-14d

Lobelia tenuior , , L. ramosa,Type= an , , surface sow @ 39ºF, after 90 days, move to 75ºF in light, grow on @ 65ºF , 7-14d ,

Lobelia valida , , ,Type= an , , surface sow @ 39ºF, after 90 days, move to 75ºF in light, grow on @ 65ºF , 7-14d ,

Lobularia maritima , alyssum , Alyssum maritimum, A. odoratum,Type= a/p , , surface sow @ 80ºF in light, grow on @ 50-55ºF , 7-14d

Lonas annua , , ,Type= an , , sow in light @ 70ºF , 5-10d

Lonas inodora, African daisy, Athanasia annua, Type=hha, sow @ 60 to 65ºF, 5-10d

Lopezia racemosa , pink brush , ,Type= a/p , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d ,

Lotus tetragonolobus , winged pea , Tetragonolobus purpureus ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d

Luffa cylindrica, loofah, L. fabiana, L. veitchii, Type=an, sow @ 70 to 75ºF, 10-15d

Lunaria annua , honesty, moonwort, satin flower , L. biennis,Type= a/b , ,surface sow @ 70ºF in light , 7-14d , invasive weed

Lupinus albicaulis , sicklekeel lupine , ,Type= an , nick and soak , sow @ 60ºF , 15-30d

Lupinus albus , white lupine , ,Type= an , nick and soak , sow @ 60ºF , 15-30d ,

Lupinus angustifolius , narrowleaf lupine , ,Type= an , nick and soak , sow @ 60ºF , 15-30d ,

Lupinus benthamii , spider lupine , ,Type= an , nick and soak , sow @ 60ºF , 15-30d ,

Lupinus bicolor , bicolor lupine , ,Type= an , nick and soak , sow @ 60ºF , 15-30d ,

Lupinus densiflorus v aureus , whitewhorl lupine , L. menziesii,Type= an , nick and soak , sow @ 60ºF , 15-30d

Lupinus hartwegii , Hartweg's bluebonnet , ,Type= an , nick and soak , sow @ 60ºF , 15-30d ,

Lupinus hirsutissimus , stinging annual lupine , ,Type= an , nick and soak , sow @ 60ºF , 15-30d

Lupinus luteus , European yellow lupine , ,Type= an , nick and soak , sow @ 60ºF , 15-30d ,

Lupinus nanus , sky lupine , ,Type= an , nick and soak , sow @ 60ºF , 15-30d ,

Lupinus sparsiflorus , Mojave lupine , ,Type= an , nick and soak , sow @ 60ºF , 15-30d ,

Lupinus subvexus , valley lupine , ,Type= an , nick and soak , sow @ 60ºF , 15-30d ,

Lupinus succulentus , hollowleaf annual lupine , L. pubescens var. succulentus,Type= an , nick and soak , sow @ 60ºF , 15-30d ,

Lupinus texensis , Texas lupine , L. subcarnosus,Type= an , nick and soak , sow @ 60ºF , 15-30d ,

Lupinus truncatus , collared annual lupine , ,Type= an , nick and soak , sow @ 60ºF , 15-30d

Lychnis x arkwrightii , , ,Type= a/p , , surface sow @ 70ºF in light , 7-14d ,

Lychnis x haageana , , ,Type= a/p , , surface sow @ 70ºF in light , 7-14d

Lychnis coeli-rosa, rose of heaven, L. cardinalis, Coronaria coeli-rosa, Silene Coeli-rosa, Viscaria cardinalis, Agrostemma coeli-rosa, Type=an, sow @ 60 to 65ºF, 7-14d

Lychnis coronaria, mullein pink, rose campion, Agrostemma coronaria, Coronaria tomentosa, Type=bi, sow @ 60 to 65ºF, 7-14d

Lychnis miqueliana,,, Type=bi, sow @ 60 to 65ºF, 7-14d, from Japan

Lycopersicon esculentum , tomato , L. lycopersicum ,Type= an , , sow @ 73ºF , 7-14d

Machaeranthera bigelovii , Bigelow's tansyaster , Aster bigelovii ,Type= bip , , sow @ 70ºF, if no germ. give 4 wks @ 39ºF , 7-14d ,

Machaeranthera tanacetifolia , tansyleaf aster , Aster tanacetifolia,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF, if no germ. give 4 wks @ 39ºF , 7-14d ,

Madia elegans , tarweed , M. corymbosa, Madaria elegans,Type= an , , surface sow @ 39ºF for six weeks, then move to room temp. , 7-14d ,

Madia sativa , tarweed , ,Type= an , , surface sow @ 39ºF for six weeks, then move to room temp. , 7-14d

Malacothrix californica,,, Type=an, direct sow outdoors in Mar., thin to 4"

Malcomia maritima, Virginian stock,, Type=an, direct sow outdoors in Sept., thin to 3"

Malope trifida , , ,Type= an , , sow @ 39ºF, after 21 days, move to 65 to 75ºF , 14-30d ,

Malva neglecta , common malva , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d , invasive weed

Malva verticillata v crispa , curled mallow , M. chinensis, M. pulchella,Type= a/b , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d

Malvastrum rotundifolium, false mallow,, Type=an, sow @ 65 to 70ºF

Manulea violacea,,, Type=an, sow @ 70 to 75ºF

Martynia annua,, Proboscidea annua, Craniolaria annua, Type=an, sow @ 65 to 70ºF, irregular 10-30d

Matricaria recutita , mayweed , ,Type= an , , sow  in light @ 70ºF , 7-14d ,

Matthiola incana , evening stock , ,Type= bi , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d ,

Matthiola longipetala , night scented stock , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d ,

Matthiola sinuata , , ,Type= bi , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d ,

Maurandya scandens , , M. semperflorens, Usteria scandens,Type= an , , sow in light @ 70ºF , 14-30d

Maurandya wislizenii , balloonbush , Epixiphium wislizeni ,Type= an , , sow in light @ 70ºF , 14-30d

Meconella linearis,,, Type=an, direct sow outdoors in Mar., thin to 3"

Meconopsis integrifolia, yellow chinese poppy, Cathcartia integrifolia, Type=bi, sow in shaded coldframe, grow on cool & shaded, set out in Sept.

Medicago lupulina , black medick , ,Type= an , , sow in darkness @ 70ºF , 7-14d , invasive weed

Medicago orbicularis , blackdisk medick , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d ,

Medicago sativa , alfalfa , ,Type= a/p , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d ,

Melampodium paludosum , , ,Type= an , , sow @ 65ºF , 7-14d

Melilotus officinalis , yellow sweet clover , ,Type= an , nick or grind , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d

Melothria pendula,,, Type=a/p, sow @ 70 to 75ºF, 7-14d

Mentzelia laevicaulis , smoothstem blazingstar , ,Type= bi , , sow @ 55 to 60ºF , 7-21d

Mentzelia lindleyi , Lindley's blazingstar , M. aurea, Bartonia aurea,Type= an , , sow @ 55 to 60ºF , 7-21d

Mentzelia pumila , dwarf mentzelia , ,Type= an , , sow @ 55 to 60ºF , 7-21d

Mesembryanthemum criniflorum , ice plant , Dorotheanthus bellidiformis,Type= an , , sow in light @ 65ºF , 7-21d ,

Mesembryanthemum crystallinum , common iceplant , Cryophytum crystallinum,Type= an , , sow in light @ 65ºF , 7-21d

Mesembryanthemum occulatum , , ,Type= an , , sow in light @ 65ºF , 7-21d

Michauxia campanuloides,,, Type=bip, sow in coldframe in Apr., set out in Sept.

Mikania scandens , climbing boneset , ,Type= an , , sow @ 72ºF , 7-14d

Mimosa pudica, sensitive plant, Type=a/p, sow @ 65 to 70ºF, 5-10d

Mimulus brevipes , Bolander's monkeyflower , ,Type= an , , surface sow @ 65ºF in light, grow on @ 55-60ºF , 7-14d ,

Mimulus guttatus , seep monkeyflower , ,Type= a/b , , surface sow @ 65ºF in light, grow on @ 55-60ºF , 7-14d ,

Mimulus x hybridus , monkey flower , ,Type= an , , surface sow @ 65ºF in light, grow on @ 55-60ºF , 7-14d ,

Mirabilis jalapa , four o'clock , ,Type= a/p , , sow @ 72ºF , 7-14d

Misopates orontium , linearleaf snapdragon , ,Type= an , , sow in light @ 70ºF , 7-14d

Mohavea breviflora,,, Type=an, direct sow outdoors in Sept., thin to 4"

Molucella laevis , bells of Ireland , ,Type= an , , surface sow 2 wks @ 39ºF, germ. @ 68ºF in light , 10-20d

Momordica charantia , bitter melon , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d ,

Momordica cochinchinensis , balsampear , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d ,

Monarda citriodora , common lemon mint , ,Type= a/p , , sow @ 70ºF, if no germ. give 4 wks @ 39ºF , 7-21d ,

Monarda didyma , bee balm , ,Type= a/p , , surface sow @ 60ºF in light , 7-14d ,

Monardella lanceolata , mustang mountainbalm , ,Type= an , , sow in light @ 70ºF , 14-30d

Monolopia major,,, Type=an, sow @ 60 to 65ºF

Monopsis campanulata,, Lobelia campanulata, Type=an, sow @ 55 to 60ºF, irregular, 10-40d

Monoptilon bellioides,,, Type=an, direct sow outdoors in Mar., thin to 4"

Montia perfoliata , miner's lettuce , Claytonia perfoliata ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF, if no germ. give 4 wks @ 39ºF , 7-21d , invasive weed

Moricandia arvensis , purple mistress , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF , 3-21d

Moscharia pinnatifida,,, Type=hha, sow @ 60 to 65ºF

Myconella myconis,, Chrysanthemum myconis, Type=a/p, direct sow outdoors in Apr., 10-14d, thin to 6"

Myosotis arvensis , field forget-me-not , ,Type= a/b , , sow in darkness @ 65 to 70ºF , 14-30d , invasive weed

Myosotis dissitiflora , , ,Type= a/p , , sow in darkness @ 65 to 70ºF , 14-30d

Myosotis sylvatica, forget-me-not, M. alpina, M. oblongata, Type=bi, direct sow outdoors in May

Myriocephalus stuartii,, Polycalymma stuartii, Type=a/p, sow @ 60 to 65ºF, grow on @ 50 to 60ºF


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2nd revision, 1/20/99