Annual/Biennial Seed Germination Database
N to Z

Names in green are nicknames. Names in italics are synonyms.  Type= a/p, for example, indicates that the plant is grown as an annual in some zones and as a perennial in others.  Only representative or most popular species are included within each of the genera listed.  For species not listed, select the seed sowing instructions for any species of the same type, i.e. an, ha, hha, bi, bip, or a/p within that genus.

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Nama demissum,,, Type=an, direct sow outdoors in Mar., thin to 4"

Nemesia cheiranthus , , ,Type= an , , sow @ 55 to 60ºF, hold constant w/o rise , 7-21d , resents transplanting

Nemesia floribunda , , ,Type= an , , sow @ 55 to 60ºF, hold constant w/o rise , 7-21d , resents transplanting

Nemesia foetens , , ,Type= an , , sow @ 55 to 60ºF, hold constant w/o rise , 7-21d , resents transplanting

Nemesia fruticans , , ,Type= a/p , , sow @ 55 to 60ºF, hold constant w/o rise , 7-21d , resents transplanting

Nemesia strumosa , , ,Type= an , , sow @ 55 to 60ºF, hold constant w/o rise , 7-21d , resents transplanting

Nemesia versicolor , , ,Type= an , , sow @ 55 to 60ºF, hold constant w/o rise , 7-21d , resents transplanting

Nemophila atomaria , , N. menziesii var. atomaria,Type= an , , sow @ 65ºF , 7-21d , grow on @ 55 to 60ºF

Nemophila discoidalis , , N. menziesii var. discoidalis,Type= an , , sow @ 65ºF , 7-21d , grow on @ 55 to 60ºF

Nemophila maculata , fivespot , ,Type= an , , sow @ 65ºF , 7-21d , grow on @ 55 to 60ºF

Nemophila menziesii , baby blue eyes , ,Type= an , , sow @ 65ºF , 7-21d , grow on @ 55 to 60ºF

Nepeta cataria , catnip , ,Type= a/p , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d , weedy

Nicandra physalodes , shoo fly plant , Atropa physalodes, Physalodes peruvianum,Type= hha , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d

Nicandra violacea, shoo fly plant,, Type=hha, sow @ 70ºF, 7-14d

Nicotiana acuminata , manyflower tobacco , ,Type= an , , surface sow @ 73ºF in light, grow on @ 65ºF , 7-14d

Nicotiana alata , flowering tobacco , ,Type= an , , surface sow @ 73ºF in light, grow on @ 65ºF , 7-14d ,

Nicotiana antennaria , , ,Type= an , , surface sow @ 73ºF in light, grow on @ 65ºF , 7-14d ,

Nicotiana attenuata , coyote tobacco , ,Type= an , , surface sow @ 73ºF in light, grow on @ 65ºF , 7-14d ,

Nicotiana bigelovii , Bigelow's tobacco , ,Type= an , , surface sow @ 73ºF in light, grow on @ 65ºF , 7-14d ,

Nicotiana knightiana , , ,Type= a/p , , surface sow @ 73ºF in light, grow on @ 65ºF , 7-14d ,

Nicotiana langsdorfii , Langsdorff's tobacco , ,Type= an , , surface sow @ 73ºF in light, grow on @ 65ºF , 7-14d ,

Nicotiana rustica , wild tobacco , ,Type= an , , surface sow @ 73ºF in light, grow on @ 65ºF , 7-14d ,

Nicotiana sylvestris , South American tobacco , ,Type= an , , surface sow @ 73ºF in light, grow on @ 65ºF , 7-14d ,

Nicotiana tabacum , cultivated tobacco , N. gigantea,Type= a/b , , surface sow @ 73ºF in light, grow on @ 65ºF , 7-14d

Nicotiana trigonophylla , , ,Type= an , , surface sow @ 73ºF in light, grow on @ 65ºF , 7-14d ,

Nicotiana x sanderae , Sander's tobacco , ,Type= an , , surface sow @ 73ºF in light, grow on @ 65ºF , 7-14d, cross betw. N. alata + N. forgetiana

Nierembergia caerulea , cup flower, ,Type= a/p , , sow @ 70ºF, allow no drop in temp. , 7-14d

Nierembergia hippomanica , dwarf cupflower , ,Type= a/p , , sow @ 70ºF, allow no drop in temp. , 7-14d ,

Nigella arvensis , , N. aristata,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF, or direct sow in the fall , 7-14d , resents transplanting

Nigella ciliaris , , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF, or direct sow in the fall , 7-14d , resents transplanting

Nigella damascena , love in a mist , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF, or direct sow in the fall , 7-14d , resents transplanting

Nigella garidellla , , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF, or direct sow in the fall , 7-14d , resents transplanting

Nigella hispanica , Spanish fennel , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF, or direct sow in the fall , 7-14d , resents transplanting

Nigella orientalis , , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF, or direct sow in the fall , 7-14d , resents transplanting

Nigella sativa , black cumin , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF, or direct sow in the fall , 7-14d , resents transplanting

Nolana humifusa , , N. prostrata ,Type= a/p , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d ,

Nolana napiformis , , ,Type= a/p , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d ,

Nolana paradoxa , blue bird , N. atriplicifolia,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d ,

Ocimum americanum , sweet basil , ,Type= a/p , , sow in light @ 70ºF , 5-10d ,

Ocimum basilicum , basil , O. bullatum,Type= an , , sow in light @ 70ºF , 5-10d ,

Ocimum basilicum micranthemum , sweet basil , ,Type= a/p , , sow in light @ 70ºF , 5-10d ,

Ocimum kilimandscharicum , hoary basil , ,Type= a/p , , sow in light @ 70ºF , 5-10d ,

Ocimum tenuiflorum , , ,Type= a/p , , sow in light @ 70ºF , 5-10d ,

Oenothera biennis , common evening primrose , Onagra biennis,Type= bi , , surface sow @ 70ºF in light, if no germ in 3 wks, move to 39ºF for 4 wks, recycle , 7-28d , invasive weed

Oenothera brevipes , golden suncup , Camissonia brevipes ssp. brevipes ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d ,

Oenothera deltoides , birdcage eveningprimrose , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d

Oenothera drummondii , beach eveningprimrose , Raimannia drummondii,Type= a/p , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d

Oenothera glazioviana , redsepal eveningprimrose , ,Type= bi , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d

Oenothera laciniata , ragged evening primrose , O. sinuata,Type= bi , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d

Oenothera mollis , , O. mollissima,Type= bi , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d ,

Oenothera pilosella, prairie sundrops, , Type=bi, , sow @ 70ºF, 7-14d

Oenothera rhombipetala, sand primrose, Raimannia rhombipetala, Type=bi, , sow @ 70ºF, 7-14d

Oenothera rosea , rose eveningprimrose , Hartmannia rosea,Type= a/p , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d

Oenothera stricta , Chilean eveningprimrose , ,Type= a/b , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d

Omphalodes linifolia , whiteflower navelwort , Cynoglossum linifolium,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF , 3-10d

Onopordum acanthium , scotch thistle , ,Type= bi , , sow @ 39ºF, germ. erratic, often many months , 30-180d ,

Onopordum nervosum , , ,Type= bi , , sow @ 39ºF, germ. erratic, often many months , 30-180d

Onoseris reflexa,, Centroclinium reflexum, Type=an, sow @ 65 to 70ºF, thin to 6"

Onosma echioides, golden drop,, Type=bi, sow in coldframe in Apr., overwinter in 5" pots,  set out the following Apr.

Origanum majorana , sweet marjoram , ,Type= a/p , , sow @ 70ºF in light , 7-14d

Origanum vulgare , oregano , ,Type= a/p , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d ,

Ornithogalum caudatum , star of bethlehem , ,Type= a/p , , sow 4 wks @ 68ºF, if no germ. 4 wks @ 39ºF, recycle , 15-30d

Orostachys spinosa , , ,Type= bi , , sow @ 70ºF , 3-10d

Orthocarpus purpurascens, owls' clover,, Type=an, direct sow outdoors in Apr., thin to 6"

Orychophragmus violaceus , , Moricandia violaceus,Type= bi , , sow in darkness @ 70ºF , 7-21d

Osteospermum clandestinum , , ,Type= an , , sow in light @ 65ºF , 10-15d

Osteospermum hyoseroides , , Tripteris hyoseroides,Type= an , , sow in light @ 65ºF , 10-15d

Osteospermum microcarpum , , ,Type= an , , sow in light @ 65ºF , 10-15d ,

Osteospermum pinnatum , , ,Type= an , , sow in light @ 65ºF , 10-15d ,

Oxalis stricta , common wood sorrel , O. corniculata,Type= an , , sow @ 65ºF , 14-60d

Oxalis valdiviensis , , O. valdiviana,Type= an , , sow @ 65ºF , 14-60d

Oxypetalum caeruleum , , Tweedia caeruleum ,Type= a/p , , sow in light @ 71ºF , 7-14d

Palaua dissecta,, P. flexuosa, Type=an, sow @ 65 to 70ºF, thin to 4"

Panicum capillare , old witch grass , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF, if no germ. give 4 wks @ 39ºF , 10-21d , invasive weed

Panicum violaceum , , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF, if no germ. give 4 wks @ 39ºF , 10-21d ,

Papaver aculeatum , poppy, ,Type= an , , sow @ 60ºF in the dark , 7-14d

Papaver argemone , long pricklyhead poppy , ,Type= an , , sow @ 60ºF in the dark , 7-14d ,

Papaver commutatum , , ,Type= an , , sow @ 60ºF in the dark , 7-14d ,

Papaver dubium , blindeyes , ,Type= an , , sow @ 60ºF in the dark , 7-14d ,

Papaver laciniatum , , ,Type= an , , sow @ 60ºF in the dark , 7-14d ,

Papaver nudicaule , Icelandic poppy , ,Type= a/b , , sow @ 60ºF in the dark , 7-14d ,

Papaver paeoniflorum , , P. somniferum var. paeoniflorum,Type= an , , sow @ 60ºF in the dark , 7-14d ,

Papaver rhoeas , shirley poppy , ,Type= an , , sow @ 60ºF in the dark , 7-14d , invasive weed

Papaver somniferum , common poppy , ,Type= an , , sow @ 60ºF in the dark , 7-14d , weedy

Papaver triniifolium , , ,Type= bi , , sow @ 60ºF in the dark , 7-14d

Pedicularis mollis, lousewort, wood betony,, Type=an, direct sow outdoors in Sept., thin to 6"

Pelargonium chamaedrifolium , , ,Type= a/b , , sow @ 73ºF , 7-14d ,

Pelargonium grossularoides , gooseberry geranium , ,Type= a/p , , sow @ 73ºF , 7-14d

Pelargonium nanum , , ,Type= an , , sow @ 73ºF , 7-14d ,

Pelargonium peltatum , ivy geranium , ,Type= an , , sow @ 73ºF , 7-14d ,

Pelargonium senecioides , , ,Type= a/p , , sow @ 73ºF , 7-14d ,

Pelargonium x hortorum , geranium , ,Type= an , , sow @ 73ºF , 7-14d ,

Pennisetum americanum , American fountaingrass , ,Type= an , , sow @ 75ºF , 7-14d ,

Pennisetum villosum , feathertop , ,Type= a/p , , sow @ 75ºF , 7-14d ,

Penstemon barbatus , beardlip penstemon , ,Type= a/p , , sow @ 39ºF, or direct sow outdoors , 20-180d ,

Penstemon hartwegii , Hartweg's penstemon , ,Type= a/p , , sow @ 39ºF, or direct sow outdoors , 20-180d

Penta lanceolata , star-cluster , P. carnea ,Type= a/p , , sow in light @ 71ºF , 5-12d

Perezia multiflora,,, Type=a/p, sow @ 60 to 65ºF, 10-20d

Perilla frutescens , beefsteak plant , Ocimum frutescens, P. ocymoides,Type= an , , sow in light @ 70ºF , 15-30d

Petrea volubilis , queen's wreath , ,Type= a/p , , sow @ 75ºF , 7-14d ,

Petrorhagia nanteuillii , proliferous pink , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d ,

Petroselinum crispum , parsley , ,Type= bi , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d ,

Petroselinum neapolitum , parsley , ,Type= bi , soak o/n , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d ,

Petunia hybrida grandiflora , petunia , ,Type= an , , surface sow @ 77ºF in light, grow on @ 55-60ºF , 10-15d ,

Petunia hybrida multiflora , petunia , ,Type= an , , surface sow @ 77ºF in light, grow on @ 55-60ºF , 10-15d ,

Petunia x hybrida , garden petunia , ,Type= an , , surface sow @ 77ºF in light, grow on @ 55-60ºF , 10-15d

Phacelia campanularia , desertbells , P. minor var. campanularia,Type= an , , sow in darkness @ 60ºF , 12-30d

Phacelia congesta , caterpillars , P. conferta,Type= an , , sow in darkness @ 60ºF , 12-30d

Phacelia distans , distant phacelia , ,Type= an , , sow in darkness @ 60ºF , 12-30d ,

Phacelia grandiflora , largeflower scorpionweed , P. whitlavia,Type= an , , sow in darkness @ 60ºF , 12-30d

Phacelia minor , wild canterbury bells , ,Type= an , , sow in darkness @ 60ºF , 12-30d ,

Phacelia parryi , Parry's scorpionweed , ,Type= an , , sow in darkness @ 60ºF , 12-30d ,

Phacelia sericea , silky phacelia , ,Type= bip , , sow in darkness @ 60ºF , 12-30d

Phacelia tanacetifolia , lacy scorpionweed or fiddleneck, P. tripinnata,Type= an , , sow in darkness @ 60ºF , 3-30d ,

Phacelia viscida , tacky scorpionweed , Eutoca viscida,Type= an , , sow in darkness @ 60ºF , 12-30d ,

Phalaris canariensis , canary grass , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d , grow on @ 60ºF

Phalaris minor , littleseed canarygrass , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d , grow on @ 60ºF

Phaseolus vulgaris , green bean , ,Type= an , , direct sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d ,

Phlox drummondii , garden phlox , ,Type= hha , , sow @ 63ºF in the dark , 7-14d , grow on @ 50 to 55ºF

Phlox pilosa , sand prairie phlox , ,Type= an , , sow @ 63ºF in the dark , 7-14d , grow on @ 50 to 55ºF

Pholistoma auritum, fiesta flower, Nemophila aurita, Type=an, sow @ 60 to 65ºF, 7-14d

Phyllopodium capitatum,,, Type=a/p, sow @ 60 to 65ºF, thin to 4"

Physalis ixocarpa , tomatillo, ground cherry , ,Type= an , , sow @ 75ºF , 10-20d ,

Physalis peruviana , Peruvian groundcherry , ,Type= a/p , , sow @ 75ºF , 10-20d

Physalis philadelphica , Mexican groundcherry , ,Type= an , , sow @ 75ºF , 10-20d ,

Physalis pruinosa , strawberry tomato , ,Type= an , , sow @ 75ºF , 10-20d ,

Pimpinella anisum , anise , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d , grow on @ 60ºF

Pisum sativum , garden pea , ,Type= an , , direct sow @ 68ºF , 7-14d ,

Plantago coronopus , buckhorn plantain , ,Type= a/p , , sow @ 70ºF, if no germ. give 4 wks @ 39ºF , 10-21d ,

Plantago patagonica , woolly plantain , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF, if no germ. give 4 wks @ 39ºF , 10-21d ,

Plantago psyllium , whorled plantain , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF, if no germ. give 4 wks @ 39ºF , 10-21d

Platystemon californicus, cream cups, P. leiocarpus, Type=an, direct sow outdoors in Mar., thin to 4"

Plectritis congesta,, Valerianella congesta, Type=an, direct sow outdoors in Mar., thin to 6"

Pluchea camphorata, marsh-fleabane,, Type=an, sow @ 65 to 70ºF, grow on @ 55 to 65ºF, thin to 18"

Plumbago caerulea, leadwort,, Type=an, sow @ 65 to 70ºF, pinch, grow on in shade.

Podolepis canescens , , P. affinis,Type= an , , sow in light @ 65 to 70ºF , 21-30d

Podolepis gracilis , , ,Type= an , , sow in light @ 65 to 70ºF , 21-30d ,

Polanisia dodecandra , clammy weed , P. graveolens ,Type= an , , sow in darkness @ 70ºF , 2-10d

Polanisia trachysperma,,, Type=an, sow @ 65 to 70ºF

Polemonium caeruleum , Jacob's ladder , ,Type= a/p , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d ,

Polygala incarnata, pink milkwort, , Type=an, , sow @ 70ºF, 7-14d

Polygala polygama v. obtusata, purple milkwort, , Type=bi, sow @ 70ºF, 7-14d

Polygala sanguinea, blood milkwort, P. viridescens, Type=an, sow @ 70ºF, 7-14d

Polygala verticillata v. isocycla, whorled milkwort, , Type=an, sow @ 70ºF, 7-14d

Polygonella articulata,, Delopyrum articulatum, Type=an, direct sow outdoors in Mar., thin to 12"

Polygonum capitatum , pinkhead smartweed , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70 to 75ºF , 21-60d , adjust mix for sharp drainage

Polygonum fagopyrum , fagopyrum , Fagopyrum esculentum ,Type= an , , sow @ 70 to 75ºF , 21-60d , adjust mix for sharp drainage

Polygonum hydropiper , water pepper , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70 to 75ºF , 21-60d , adjust mix for sharp drainage, weedy

Polygonum orientale , prince's feather , Persicaria orientalis,Type= a/p , , sow @ 70 to 75ºF , 21-60d , adjust mix for sharp drainage

Polygonum perfoliatum , Asiatic tearthumb , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70 to 75ºF , 21-60d , adjust mix for sharp drainage

Polygonum tataricum , green buckwheat , Fagopyrum tataricum ,Type= an , , sow @ 70 to 75ºF , 21-60d , adjust mix for sharp drainage

Polypteris hookeriana,, Palafoxia hookeriana, Othake hookeriana, O. sphacelatum, Type=an, sow @ 60 to 65ºF

Porana racemosa, snow creeper,, Type=hha, sow @ 70 to 75ºF, grow on @ 60 to 65ºF, thin to 12"

Porophyllum ruderale ssp macrocephalum , yerba porosa , ,Type= a/p , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-10d

Portulaca grandiflora , rose moss , ,Type= an , , sow in light @ 70 to 85ºF , 14-21d ,

Portulaca oleracea , purslane , ,Type= an , , sow in light @ 70 to 85ºF , 14-21d , invasive weed

Portulaca pilosa , kiss me quick , ,Type= an , , sow in light @ 70 to 85ºF , 14-21d

Prenia sladeniana,, Mesembryanthemum sladenianum, Type=an, sow @ 65 to 70ºF, grow on @ 60 to 65ºF

Primula floribunda, buttercup primrose,, Type=a/p, surface sow @ 55 to 60ºF, 15-25d

Primula malacoides, fairy primrose,, Type=a/p, surface sow @ 55 to 60ºF, 15-25d

Proboscidea fragrans , ram's horn , Martynia frangrans,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF , 15-40d ,

Proboscidea louisianica , unicorn plant , P. jussieui,Type= an , , extract seed from pod, sow @ 70ºF , 10d

Quamoclit coccinea, star glory, Ipomoea coccinea, Type=an, sow @ 65 to 70ºF, 7-14d

Ranunculus aquatilis , whitewater crowfoot , ,Type= a/p , , sow @ 70ºF , 30-45d

Ranunculus arvensis , corn buttercup , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF , 30-45d ,

Ranunculus asiaticus , , ,Type= a/p , , sow @ 70ºF , 30-45d ,

Ranunculus ophioglossifolius , , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF , 30-45d ,

Ranunculus sceleratus , cursed buttercup , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF , 30-45d ,

Raphanus sativus , radish , ,Type= an , , direct sow @ 50ºF , 7-14d ,

Ratibida columnifera , Mexican hat , ,Type= a/p , , sow 9 wks @ 39ºF, germ. at 80ºF , 7-14d ,

Ratibida pinnata , prairie coneflower , ,Type= a/p , , sow 9 wks @ 39ºF, germ. at 80ºF , 7-14d

Reseda alba , dyer's rocket , ,Type= a/p , , sow in light @ 70ºF , 7-14d ,

Reseda lutea , yellow mignonette , ,Type= bi , , sow in light @ 70ºF , 7-14d ,

Reseda luteola , weld , ,Type= a/p , , sow in light @ 70ºF , 7-14d ,

Reseda odorata , mignonette , ,Type= an , , sow in light @ 70ºF , 7-14d ,

Rhinanthus minor , little yellowrattle , ,Type= an , , direct sow fresh seed outdoors , variable

Rhodanthe charsleyae , , ,Type= an , , sow @ 75 to 80ºF , 14-30d ,

Rhodanthe chlorocephala , , ,Type= an , , sow @ 75 to 80ºF , 14-30d ,

Rhodanthe citrina , , ,Type= an , , sow @ 75 to 80ºF , 14-30d ,

Rhodanthe manglesii , , ,Type= an , , sow @ 75 to 80ºF , 14-30d ,

Rhodanthe polygalifolia , , ,Type= an , , sow @ 75 to 80ºF , 14-30d ,

Rhodanthe sterilescens , , ,Type= an , , sow @ 75 to 80ºF , 14-30d ,

Rhodanthe stricta , , ,Type= an , , sow @ 75 to 80ºF , 14-30d

Rhodochiton volubile, purple bells,, Type=a/p, sow @ 60 to 65ºF, irregular 12-40d

Rhynchosia phaseoloides , semilla de chintallahua , ,Type= a/p , nick + soak 2/n , sow @ 72ºF , 7-14d

Ricinus communis , castor bean , ,Type= a/p , nick + soak 2/n , sow @ 60ºF , 7-14d

Ricotia lunaria,,, Type=an, direct sow outdoors in Mar., thin to 4"

Roemeria refracta,,, Type=an, direct sow outdoors in Mar., thin to 6"

Rudbeckia hirta , black eyed susan , R. flava,Type= a/b , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d , invasive weed

Rudbeckia occidentalis , Western coneflower , ,Type= a/b , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d

Rumex cordatus , , ,Type= a/p , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d ,

Rumex dentatus , toothed dock , ,Type= a/p , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d ,

Rumex maritimus , golden dock , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d ,

Rumex vesicarius , , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d

Sabatia angularis , rosepink , ,Type= a/p , , sow @ 70ºF, if no germ. give 4 wks @ 39ºF , 10-21d

Sabatia dodecandra,, S. chloroides, Type=a/p, sow @ 55 to 60ºF, thin to 9"

Salpiglossis sinuata , painted tongue , S. grandiflora, S. hybrida, S. variabilis,Type= an , , sow in darkness @ 70ºF , 15-30d

Salvia argentea , silver sage , S. patula,Type= bi , , surface sow 4 wks @ 68ºF in light, if no germ. 4 wks @ 39ºF, recycle , 10-20d , grow on @ 60ºF

Salvia carduacea , thistle sage , ,Type= ha , , surface sow 4 wks @ 68ºF in light, if no germ. 4 wks @ 39ºF, recycle , 10-20d , grow on @ 60ºF

Salvia coccinea , scarlet sage , S. rosea,Type= a/p , , surface sow 4 wks @ 68ºF in light, if no germ. 4 wks @ 39ºF, recycle , 10-20d , grow on @ 60ºF

Salvia columbariae , chia , ,Type= hha , , surface sow 4 wks @ 68ºF in light, if no germ. 4 wks @ 39ºF, recycle , 10-20d , grow on @ 60ºF

Salvia farinacea , mealycup sage , ,Type= a/p , , surface sow 4 wks @ 68ºF in light, if no germ. 4 wks @ 39ºF, recycle , 10-20d , grow on @ 60ºF

Salvia forskaohlei , indigo woodland sage , ,Type= bi , , surface sow 4 wks @ 68ºF in light, if no germ. 4 wks @ 39ºF, recycle , 10-20d , grow on @ 60ºF

Salvia hispanica , Spanish sage , ,Type= hha , , surface sow 4 wks @ 68ºF in light, if no germ. 4 wks @ 39ºF, recycle , 10-20d , grow on @ 60ºF

Salvia patens , , ,Type= a/p , , surface sow 4 wks @ 68ºF in light, if no germ. 4 wks @ 39ºF, recycle , 10-20d , grow on @ 60ºF

Salvia reflexa , Rocky mountain sage , ,Type= an , , surface sow 4 wks @ 68ºF in light, if no germ. 4 wks @ 39ºF, recycle , 10-20d , grow on @ 60ºF

Salvia sclarea , clary sage , ,Type= bip , , surface sow 4 wks @ 68ºF in light, if no germ. 4 wks @ 39ºF, recycle , 10-20d , grow on @ 60ºF, weedy

Salvia splendens , scarlet sage , ,Type= an , , surface sow 4 wks @ 68ºF in light, if no germ. 4 wks @ 39ºF, recycle , 10-20d , grow on @ 60ºF

Salvia tiliifolia , lindenleaf sage , ,Type= a/p , , surface sow 4 wks @ 68ºF in light, if no germ. 4 wks @ 39ºF, recycle , 10-20d , grow on @ 60ºF

Salvia viridis , , S. horminum ,Type= a/b , , surface sow 4 wks @ 68ºF in light, if no germ. 4 wks @ 39ºF, recycle , 10-20d , grow on @ 60ºF

Salvia x superba , , ,Type= a/p , , surface sow 4 wks @ 68ºF in light, if no germ. 4 wks @ 39ºF, recycle , 10-20d , grow on @ 60ºF

Sanguisorba poterium , salad burnet , ,Type= a/p , , surface sow @ 70ºF in light , 7-14d

Sanvitalia procumbens , creeping zinnia , ,Type= an , , surface sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d

Saponaria calabrica , soapwort, S. multiflora,Type= an , , sow @ 39ºF, after 3 wks, move to 70ºF , 10-21d

Satureja hortensis , summer savory , Calamintha hortensis,Type= an , , surface sow @ 70ºF in light , 7-14d , grow on @ 60ºF

Saxifraga cymbalaria, ivy leaf saxifrage,, Type=an, direct sow outdoors in Sept.

Saxifraga florulenta,,, Type=bi, direct sow outdoors in Sept.

Scabiosa atropurpurea , mourning bride , S. major, S. maritima, S. calyptocarpa,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF , 10-15d ,

Scabiosa japonica v alpina , , ,Type= bi , , sow @ 70ºF , 10-15d ,

Scabiosa prolifera , Carmel daisy, ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF , 10-15d ,

Scabiosa stellata , starflower pincushions , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF , 10-15d ,

Schizanthus candidus , butterfly flower, ,Type= an , , sow @ 60 to 75ºF , 7-14d

Schizanthus hookeri , butterfly flower, ,Type= an , , sow @ 60 to 75ºF , 7-14d

Schizanthus pinnatus , poorman's orchid , S. grandiflorus, S. papilionaceus, S. porrigens,Type= an , , sow @ 60 to 75ºF , 7-14d ,

Schizanthus wisetonensis , , ,Type= an , , sow @ 60 to 75ºF , 7-14d, cross betw. S. pinnatus + S. Grahamii

Schizonepeta tenuifolia , Japanese catnip , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF in the dark , 7-14d

Schizopetalon walkeri , , ,Type= an , , sow in darkness @ 60 to 65ºF , 6-21d

Schoenia cassiniana,,, Type=an, sow @ 60 to 65ºF

Sclerocarpus uniserialis,, Gymnolomia uniserialis, Gymnopsis uniserialis, Type=an, sow @ 65 to 70ºF, grow on @ 55 to 65ºF

Scyphanthus elegans,, Grammatocarpus volubiis, Type=hha, sow @ 60 to 65ºF

Sedum caeruleum, stonecrop,, Type=an, sow @ 60 to 65ºF

Sedum rubens , , ,Type= ab , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d

Sedum sempervivoides , creeping stonecrop , Umbilicus platyphyllus,Type= bi , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d

Senecio cakilefolius , , ,Type= an , , sow in light @ 65 to 75ºF , 10-21d ,

Senecio cineraria , silver ragwort , S. acanthifolius, Cineraria maritima,Type= an , , sow in light @ 65 to 75ºF , 10-21d

Senecio elegans , redpurple ragwort , Jacobaea elegans, S. purpureus,Type= hha, , sow in light @ 65 to 75ºF , 10-21d

Senecio jacobaea , tansy ragwort , ,Type= bi , , sow in light @ 65 to 75ºF , 10-21d

Senecio platylepis , , ,Type= an , , sow in light @ 65 to 75ºF , 10-21d ,

Senecio sylvaticus , woodland ragwort , ,Type= an , , sow in light @ 65 to 75ºF , 10-21d ,

Senecio vulgaris , common groundsel , ,Type= an , , sow in light @ 65 to 75ºF , 10-21d , invasive weed

Sesamum indicum , sesame , ,Type= an , , sow @ 68ºF , 7-14d ,

Setaria glauca , yellow foxtail , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF , 3-7d , invasive weed

Setaria italica , foxtail millet , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF , 3-7d , invasive weed

Setaria macrostachya , rabo de ardilla , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF , 3-7d

Sicana odorifera, curuba,, Type=a/p, sow @ 75 to 80ºF, grow on @ 65 to 70ºF

Sideranthus annuus,,, Type=an, sow @ 60 to 70ºF, thin to 6"

Silene armeria , sweet william catchfly , ,Type= an , , surface sow 4 wks @ 70ºF in light, if no germ. 4 wks @ 39ºF, recycle , 10-20d

Silene armeria compacta , , ,Type= an , , surface sow 4 wks @ 70ºF in light, if no germ. 4 wks @ 39ºF, recycle , 10-20d

Silene clandestina , , ,Type= an , , surface sow 4 wks @ 70ºF in light, if no germ. 4 wks @ 39ºF, recycle , 10-20d ,

Silene coeli-rosa , rose of heaven , Lychnis coeli-rosa,Type= an , , surface sow 4 wks @ 70ºF in light, if no germ. 4 wks @ 39ºF, recycle , 10-20d ,

Silene conica , conical catchfly , ,Type= an , , surface sow 4 wks @ 70ºF in light, if no germ. 4 wks @ 39ºF, recycle , 10-20d ,

Silene gallica , common catchfly , ,Type= an , , surface sow 4 wks @ 70ºF in light, if no germ. 4 wks @ 39ºF, recycle , 10-20d ,

Silene multinervia , manynerve catchfly , ,Type= an , , surface sow 4 wks @ 70ºF in light, if no germ. 4 wks @ 39ºF, recycle , 10-20d ,

Silene pendula , nodding catchflly , S. graeca, S. rosea,Type= an , , surface sow 4 wks @ 70ºF in light, if no germ. 4 wks @ 39ºF, recycle , 10-20d ,

Silybum eburneum , milkthistle , ,Type= a/b , , sow @ 55 to 70ºF , 7-14d ,

Silybum marianum , blessed milkthistle , Carduus marianus, Mariana lactea,Type= an , , sow @ 55 to 70ºF in light, 7-14d

Smyrnium olusatrum , Alexanders , ,Type= bi , , sow @ 70ºF 3 months, then move to 39ºF , 60-90d , invasive weed

Smyrnium perfoliatum , , ,Type= bi , , sow @ 70ºF 3 months, then move to 39ºF , 60-90d ,

Solanum burbankii , wonderberry , ,Type= an , , sow @ 73ºF , 7-14d

Solanum capsicastrum, winter cherry,, Type=a/p, sow @ 60 to 65ºF

Solanum integrifolium , ruffled tomato , S. coccineum,Type= an , , sow @ 73ºF , 7-14d

Solanum mammosum , nipplefruit , ,Type= a/p , , sow @ 73ºF , 7-14d ,

Solanum melanocerasum , garden huckleberry , ,Type= an , , sow @ 73ºF , 7-14d ,

Solanum melongena var. esculentum , eggplant , ,Type= an , , sow @ 73ºF , 7-14d

Solanum pseudo-capsicum, Jerusalem cherry,, Type=a/p, sow @ 60 to 65ºF

Solanum quitoense, naranjilla ,, Type= an, , sow @ 70ºF, 7-14d

Solanum rostratum , buffalo bur , ,Type= an , , sow @ 73ºF , 7-14d , invasive weed

Solanum tuberosum , potato , ,Type= an , , sow @ 60 to 65ºF , 7-14d ,

Solanum xanthocarpum , , ,Type= an , , sow @ 73ºF , 7-14d

Solenostemon scutellarioides , coleus , Coleus blumei ,Type= an , , surface sow @ 75ºF in light , 10-14d

Specularia perfoliata, venus' looking-glass ,, Type=an, direct sow outdoors in Mar., 10-30d, thin to 4"

Spergularia rubra , sand spurrey , ,Type= a/b , , sow @ 70ºF , 10-21d

Spilanthes oleracea, toothache plant, , Type=an, , sow @ 70ºF in darkness, 7-14d

Stachys annua , annual hedgenettle , ,Type= a/p , , sow @ 73ºF , 7-14d

Stachytarpheta jamaicensis,,, Type=an, sow @ 65 to 70ºF, irregular 14-21d

Steirodiscus gamolepis tagetes , gold rush , ,Type= an , , sow in light @ 60 to 70ºF , 5-10d ,

Stellaria media , common chickweed , ,Type= a/p , , sow @ 39ºF, or direct sow in the fall , 10-21d , invasive weed

Streptocarpus hybridus, cape primrose,, Type=a/p, sow @ 55 to 60ºF, irregular 6 to 8 weeks

Stylomecon heterophylla , windpoppy , Meconopsis heterophylla, Papaver heterophyllum,Type= an , , direct sow outdoors, thin to 6" , 14-21d

Swertia bimaculata , , ,Type= an , , direct sow outdoors , variable ,

Tagetes erecta , African marigold , ,Type= an , , surface sow @ 74ºF in light , 7-14d , stick seed vertically into the media

Tagetes filifolia , , ,Type= an , , surface sow @ 74ºF in light , 7-14d , stick seed vertically into the media

Tagetes minuta , muster John Henry , ,Type= an , , surface sow @ 74ºF in light , 7-14d , stick seed vertically into the media

Tagetes patula , French marigold , ,Type= an , , surface sow @ 74ºF in light , 7-14d , stick seed vertically into the media

Tagetes pusilla , marigold , ,Type= an , , surface sow @ 74ºF in light , 7-14d , stick seed vertically into the media

Tagetes tenuifolia , signata marigold , T. signata,Type= an , , surface sow @ 74ºF in light , 7-14d , stick seed vertically into the media

Tagetes tubiflora , , ,Type= a/p , , surface sow @ 74ºF in light , 7-14d , stick seed vertically into the media

Tanacetum parthenium , feverfew , ,Type= a/p , , surface sow in light @ 68ºF , 7-14d , weedy

Tephrosia virginiana , goat's rue, hoary pea , ,Type= an , nick or grind , sow @ 70ºF , 4-10d , needs dry soil

Thelesperma burridgeanum,, T. hybridum, Cosmidium burridgeanum, Type=an, direct sow outdoors in Apr., thin to 6"

Thlaspi arvense , penny cress , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF, if no germ. give 4 wks @ 39ºF , 10`21d , invasive weed

Thlaspi ceratocarpum , , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF, if no germ. give 4 wks @ 39ºF , 10`21d

Thunbergia alata , black-eyed susan vine , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d

Thymophylla tenuiloba, dahlberg daisy, Hymenatherum tenuilobum, Type=an, sow @ 60 to 65ºF, 5-10d

Thymus vulgaris , thyme , ,Type= a/p , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d ,

Tithonia rotundifolia , clavel de muerto , T. speciosa, Helianthus speciosus,Type= an , , surface sow in light @ 70ºF , 7-14d

Tolpis barbata,, Crepis barbata, Type=an, sow @ 55 to 60ºF, 4-8d

Tonella tenella,, T. collinsioides, Type=an, direct sow outdoors in Mar., thin to 3"

Torenia cyanea , , ,Type= a/p , , surface sow in light @ 70 to 75ºF , 7-30d ,

Torenia flava , , T. baillonii,Type= an , , surface sow in light @ 70 to 75ºF , 7-30d

Torenia fournieri , bluewings , ,Type= a/p , , surface sow in light @ 70 to 75ºF , 7-30d

Townsendia parryi , Parry's townsend daisy , ,Type= bip , store 6m @ 70ºF , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d

Trachelium caeruleum, blue throatwort,, Type=a/p, sow @ 55 to 60ºF, 10-20d

Trachymene caerulea , blue lace flower , Didiscus caerulea,Type= an , , sow in darkness @ 70ºF , 15-30d

Trachyspermum ammi , , ,Type= an , , sow in darkness @ 70ºF , 4-10d ,

Trichosanthes cucumerina v anguina , snake gourd , ,Type= an , , sow @ 65 to 75ºF , 14-30d

Trichostema dichotomum, bastard pennyroyal,, Type=ha, direct sow outdoors in Apr., thin to 6"

Tridax trilobata,, Galinsoga trilobata, Type=hha, sow @ 60 to 65ºF, thin to 4"

Trifolium arvense , rabbit-foot clover , ,Type= a/b , , sow @ 70ºF, if no germ. give 4 wks @ 39ºF , 10-21d , invasive weed

Trifolium dubium , little hop clover , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF, if no germ. give 4 wks @ 39ºF , 10-21d , invasive weed

Trifolium incarnatum , crimson clover , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF, if no germ. give 4 wks @ 39ºF , 10-21d ,

Trigonella caerulea , blue fenugreek , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d ,

Trigonella foenum-graecum , sicklefruit fenugreek , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d

Triodanis perfoliata, Venus' looking glass, Specularia perfoliata, Type=an, , sow @ 70ºF, 7-14d

Tripteris hyoseroides,, Osteospermum hyoseroides, Type=an, sow @ 60 to 65ºf, 4-8d

Tropaeolum majus , nasturtium , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF in the dark , 7-14d , weedy

Tropaeolum peltophorum , shield nasturtium , T. lobbiamum,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF in the dark , 7-14d ,

Tropaeolum peregrinum , canary creeper , T. canariense, T. aduncum,Type= a/p , , sow @ 70ºF in the dark , 7-14d

Tropaeolum polyphyllum , , ,Type= a/p , , sow @ 70ºF in the dark , 7-14d

Uropappus linearifolius,, Microseris linearifolia, Type=an, direct sow outdoors in Apr., thin to 6"

Urospermum dalechampii,,, Type=bip, sow @ 60 to 65ºF, 14-21d

Ursinia anthemoides , , Sphenogyne anthemoides,Type= a/p , , sow @ 55 to 60ºF , 14-30d ,

Ursinia cakilefolia , , ,Type= an , , sow @ 55 to 60ºF , 14-30d ,

Ursinia calenduliflora , , ,Type= an , , sow @ 55 to 60ºF , 14-30d ,

Ursinia nana , , ,Type= an , , sow @ 55 to 60ºF , 14-30d ,

Ursinia speciosa , , ,Type= an , , sow @ 55 to 60ºF , 14-30d ,

Vaccaria hispanica , cow soapwort , Saponaria vaccaria,Type= an , , sow @ 39ºF , 7-14d

Valeriana officinalis , garden heliotrope , ,Type= an , , sow @ 39ºF, or direct sow in the fall , 20-40d

Venidium fastuosum,,, Type=an, sow @ 60 to 65ºF, 4-10d

Verbascum blattaria , moth mullein , ,Type= bi , , surface sow @ 70ºF in light , 7-14d ,

Verbascum bombyciferum , mullein , ,Type= bi , , surface sow @ 70ºF in light , 7-14d ,

Verbascum chaixii alba , white mullein , ,Type= bi , , surface sow @ 70ºF in light , 7-14d ,

Verbascum densiflorum , denseflower mullein , V. thapsiforme,Type= bi , , surface sow @ 70ºF in light , 7-14d

Verbascum lychnitis , white mullein , ,Type= bi , , surface sow @ 70ºF in light , 7-14d ,

Verbascum olympicum , , ,Type= bi , , surface sow @ 70ºF in light , 7-14d ,

Verbascum phlomoides , clasping mullein , ,Type= bi , , surface sow @ 70ºF in light , 7-14d ,

Verbascum phoeniceum , purple mullein , ,Type= bi , , surface sow @ 70ºF in light , 7-14d ,

Verbascum pulverulentum , violetstamen mullein, hoary mullein , V. floccosum,Type= bi , , surface sow @ 70ºF in light , 7-14d ,

Verbascum sinuatum , wavyleaf mullein , ,Type= bi , , surface sow @ 70ºF in light , 7-14d ,

Verbascum thapsus , common mullein , ,Type= bi , , surface sow @ 70ºF in light, if no germ. in 2 wks, move to 39ºF for 2 wks, recycle , 7-14d , invasive weed

Verbascum virgatum , wand mullein , ,Type= bi , , surface sow @ 70ºF in light , 7-14d ,

Verbena bonariensis , purpletop vervain , ,Type= a/p , , direct sow in the fall or sow 4 wks @ 39ºF, germ. @ 72ºF in darkness , 10-20d , can be weedy

Verbena canadensis , rose vervain , V. aubletia, V. drummondii,Type= an , , sow @ 75ºF under thin cover , 5-21d ,

Verbena grandiflora , , V. canadensis var. grandiflora,Type= an , , sow @ 75ºF under thin cover , 5-21d ,

Verbena hortensis , trailing verbena , V. hybrida,Type= an , , sow @ 75ºF under thin cover , 5-21d ,

Verbena x hybrida , garden vervain , ,Type= an , , sow @ 75 to 80ºF under thin cover , 5-21d ,

Verbesina encelioides , golden crownbeard , Ximenesia encelioides,Type= an , , sow @ 60 to 65ºF , 14-30d

Veronica hederifolia , ivyleaf speedwell , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF, if no germ. give 4 wks @ 39ºF , 10-21d , invasive weed

Veronica spicata , spiked speedwell , ,Type= a/p , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d ,

Vicia faba , horsebean , ,Type= an , nick or grind , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d ,

Vicia hirsuta , tiny vetch , ,Type= an , nick or grind , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d , invasive weed

Vicia villosa , hairy vetch, winter vetch , ,Type= a/b , nick or grind , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d

Vinca rosea, cape periwinkle, Ammocallis rosea, Lochnera rosea, Type=a/p, sow @ 65 to 70ºF, 7-14d

Viola arvensis , field pansy , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF in the dark , 7-14d ,

Viola cornuta , horned violet, ,Type= a/p , , sow @ 70ºF in the dark , 7-14d ,

Viola hiemalis , , ,Type= a/b , , sow @ 70ºF in the dark , 7-14d ,

Viola tricolor , pansy violet, johnny-jump-up , ,Type= a/p , , sow @ 70ºF in the dark , 7-14d , invasive weed

Viola wittrockiana , pansy , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF in the dark , 7-14d

Wahlenbergia capensis , , ,Type= an , , sow in light @ 60 to 70ºF , 14-30d ,

Wahlenbergia krebsii , , ,Type= a/p , , sow in light @ 60 to 70ºF , 14-30d ,

Wahlenbergia procumbens , , ,Type= a/p , , sow in light @ 60 to 70ºF , 14-30d ,

Wahlenbergia undulata , , ,Type= an , , sow in light @ 60 to 70ºF , 14-30d

Waitzia grandiflora,,, Type=an, sow @ 65 to 70ºF, thin to 6"

Withania somnifera, ashwagandha, , Type=an, , sow in darkness @ 70ºF, 14-21d

Xanthisma texanum,, Centauridium drummondii, Type=an, direct sow outdoors in Mar., thin to 6"

Xeranthemum annuum , immortelle , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d ,

Zaluzianskya capensis , night phlox , Nycterinia capensis,Type= a/p , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d

Zaluzianskya katherinae , , ,Type= a/p , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d ,

Zaluzianskya villosa , , Z. selaginoides, Nycterinia selaginoides,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d

Zea mays var. saccharata , corn , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d ,

Zinnia angustifolia , star zinnia, Z. mexicana, Type= an , , sow @ 72ºF , 7-14d

Zinnia elegans , elegant zinnia , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d ,

Zinnia haageana , , Z. angustifolia,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d

Zinnia peruviana , Peruvian zinnia , ,Type= an , , sow @ 70ºF , 7-14d

Zizania aquatica , wild rice , ,Type= an , , direct sow underwater in the fall , variable , germinates when water temp. reaches 40ºF in the spring.


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2nd revision, 1/20/99
3rd revision, 1/9/01