Seed Germination Database - Perennials

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Acaena buchananii, caesiiglauca, fissistipula, inermis, magellanica, microphylla, myriophylla, novae-zelandiae, and saccaticupula , Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) very slow germinator,

Acantholimon acerosum, albanicum, armenum, bracteatum, dianthifolium, glumaceum, kotschyanum, and ulicinum , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks Acantholimon seeds germ. better after storage

Acanthus hungaricus (balcanicus) , Soak 1-2 days, Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) for irregular germination

Acanthus mollis, and spinosus, Soak 1-2 days, Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germination irregular, often several months

Achillea ageratifolia, and nana , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF),   if no germ. in 4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4 wks

Achillea ageratum, clypeolata, filipendulina, millefolium, nobilis, ptarmica, pyrenaica, siberica, and tomentosa , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in less than two wks, thin cover, needs light, grow on at 10ºC (50ºF)

Achillea erba-rotta , Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germination irregular, often several months

Achlys triphylla , Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -6 to -7ºC (19-21ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) for germination

Achnatherum calamagrostis , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF),   if no germ. in 4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4 wks

Acinos alpinus , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF),   if no germ. in 4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4 wks

Aciphylla aurea, congesta, dieffenbachii, monroi, simplex, spedenii, and subflabellata , Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -6 to -7ºC (19-21ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) for germination

Aconitum anthora, x arendsii, carmiichaelii, cammarum, lamarckii, napellus, septentrionale, variegatum, and vulparia , Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -6 to -7ºC (19-21ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) for germination Short viable

Acorus calamus , Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -6 to -7ºC (19-21ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) for germination, or sow outdoors immediately after harvest.

Actaea alba, erythrocarpa, pachypoda, rubra, and spicata , Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) for germination

Adenophora bulleyana , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF),   if no germ. in 4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4 wks

Adenophora coelestis, cymerhae, himalayana, liliifolia, nikoensis, pereskiifolia, polyantha, takedai, tashiroi, and triphylla , Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germination irregular, often several months

Adenostyles alpina , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Adonis amurensis, brevistyla, pyrenaica, and vernalis , Sow immediately outdoors. Short viability seed will germinate in the spring.

Aethonema antitaurii, and coridifolium , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germination slow

Aethonema grandiflora, kotschyi, membranaceum, and schistosum , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Agapanthus Headbourne-Hybriden, umbellatus, and umbellatus alba , Sow at 22ºC (72ºF) in constant humidity for very slow germ. over a long period.

Agastache aurantiaca, barberi, cana, cusickii, foeniculum, nepetoides, pringlei, and rugosum, Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germination slow

Agastache pallidiflora, and rupestris , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in less than two wks

Agastache scrophulariaefolia , Sow at -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 8 wks, move to 20ºC (68ºF) for germination

Agoseris cuspidata , Sow at -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 12 wks, move to 20ºC (68ºF) for germination

Agrimonia eupatoria, and procera , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Agropyron magellanicum ,  Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germ. in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Agropyron trachycaulum , Sow at -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 12 wks, move to 20ºC (68ºF) for germination

Agrostis hyemalis, and scabra , Sow at -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 12 wks, move to 20ºC (68ºF) for germination

Ajuga genevensis, and reptans , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Alcea ficifolia, and rosea , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks Often biennial

Alcea pallida, and rugosa , Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germination irregular, often several months

Alchemilla alpina, epipsila, erythropoda, hoppeana, mollis, saxatilis, and xanthochlora , Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -6 to -7ºC (19-21ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) for germination

Aletris farinosa , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in less than two wks

Alisma lanceolatum, parviflorum, and plantago-aquatica , Sow at 22ºC (72ºF) in muddy compost for 2-4 wks, move to 0ºC (32ºF) for 4-6 wks, after which temperature should be raised gradually.

Allium acuminatum, aflatunense, atropurpureum, carinatum ssp. pulchellum, cernuum, christophii (albopilosum), cyathophorum v. farreri, fistulosum, flavum, giganteum, insubricum, jesdianum, moly, narcissiflorum, nigrum, oreophilum (ostrowskianum), praecox, pulchellum, rosenbachianum, sphaerocephalum, stellatum, stipitatum, ursinum, and victorialis , Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) for germination

Allium amethystinum, and hollandicum , Sow at 4ºC (39ºF), germ. erratic

Allium ampeloprasum , amphibolum, caeruleum, mairei, schoenoprasum, senescens, sikkimensis, and splendens, Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in less than two wks  

Allium karataviense , Sow outdoors in the fall for spring germ. , Short lived seed, sow at once.

Allium neapolitanum, and ramosum (odorum) , Sow at 22ºC (72ºF) under constant humidity

Allium tanguticum, and tuberosum , Sow at -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 6 wks, move to 20ºC (68ºF) for germination

Alionopsis spatulata , Sow on the surface at 20ºC (68ºF) in light, germinates in less than two wks

Alonsoa meridionalis , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in less than two wks  

Alpinus alba , Sow on the surface at 20ºC (68ºF) in light, germinates in less than two wks

Alstroemeria aurantiaca, hookerii, ligtu, and pulchella , Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germ. irregular, often several mos.

Althaea officinalis , Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germ. irregular, often several mos.

Alyssoides utriculata , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Alyssum argenteum, montanum, repens, saxatile, serpyllifolium, spinosum, and wulfenianum , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in less than two wks

Alyssum cuneifolium , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Alyssum petraeum , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germination slow

Ammophila arenaria , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks  

Amorpha canescens , Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germination irregular, often several months

Ampelodesmos mauritanica , Sow at 23ºC (73ºF), germinates in about 2 weeks

Amsonia hubrichtii, illustris, orientalis, and tabernaemontana ,  Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF) for 6 weeks, move to 20ºC (68ºF) for germ. in a few days.  If no germ. in 3 wks, dig out seeds and give them 8 to 12 hr. soak.

Anacyclus depressus, and maroccanus , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in less than two wks

Anaphalis alpicola, margaritacea, and triplinervis , Surface sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in about two wks or so.

Anarrhinum bellidifolium , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germination slow

Anchusa azurea, and officinalis , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF) in light, germination slow

Andropogon gerardi, scoparius, and virginicus , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germination slow

Androsace albana, armeriaca, barbulata, ciliata, halleri, hirtella, mathildae, pubescens, pyrenaica, sempervirens, sericea, and spinulifera , Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germination irregular, often several months

Androsace alpina, carnea, chamaejasme, lanuginosa, and villosa , Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) for irregular germination

Androsace darwascia, and vandelii , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) indefinitely.

Andryala aghardii , Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germination irregular, often several months

Anemone baicalensis, barbulata, drummondii, gernica, lyallii, obtusiloba, parviflora, rupicola, and sylvestris , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germination slow

Anemone canadensis, multifida, and rivularis , Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) for slow germination

Anemone baldensis, caroliniana, cylindrica, hortensis, hupehensis, leveillei, magellanica, narcissiflora, tomentosa, and virginiana , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Anemone nemorosa , Sow immediately outdoors. Short viability seed will germinate in the spring.

Anemone ranunculoides ,  Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -5ºC (23ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) for slow germination

Anemone vernalis , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in less than two wks

Anemone x lesseri , Sow immediately outdoors. Seed will germinate in the spring or sow at 20ºC (68ºF), slow germ.

Anemonopsis macrophylla ,  Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germination irregular, often several months

Angelica archangelica, and pachycarpa , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in less than two wks

Angelica atropurpurea, and gigas , Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germination irregular, often several months

Antennaria alpina, carpatica, dioica, friesiana, howellii, magellanica, neglecta, parvifolia, plantaginifolia, and rosea , Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germination irregular, often several months ,

Anthemis carpatica, nobilis, rudolphiana, sancti-johannis, and tinctoria , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in less than two wks

Anthericum liliago, and ramosum , Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germination irregular, often several months

Anthoxanthum odoratum ,  Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in less than two wks

Anthriscus sylvestris , Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germination irregular, often several months

Anthyllis montana , Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) for germination

Anthyllis vulneraria , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in less than two wks

Antirrhinum braun-blanquetti , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF) in light, germinates in less than two wks

Antirrhinum sempervirens , Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germination irregular, often several months

Apocynum androsaemifolium , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in less than two wks

Apocynum cannabinum , Sow at -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 12 wks, move to 20ºC (68ºF) for germination

Aquilegia alpina , buergeriana, canadensis, flabellata, formosa, glandulosa, nevadensis, saximontana, transylvanica, viridiflora, and vulgaris, Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germination irregular, often several months

Aquilegia atrata , Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) for germination

Aquilegia bertolonii, caerulea, clematiflora, laramiensis, longissima, rockii, scopulorum, and siberica  , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germination slow may take several months

Aquilegia chrysantha, , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Aquilegia olympica , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) indefinitely.

Arabis alpina, aubrietoides, blepharophylla, caucasica, muralis, scopoliana, and stelleri , Sow on the surface at 20ºC (68ºF) in light, germinates in less than two wks

Arabis lyrata , Sow at -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 12 wks, move to 20ºC (68ºF) for germination

Arabis procurrens ,  Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Aralia cachmeriana, and racemosa , Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germination irregular, often several months

Arctium lappa , Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germination irregular, often several months

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi , Slow germinator - up to a year or more. Store seeds in layers of moist sand in the shade. Check seeds regularly in the spring, and sow them all as soon as radicles appear

Arenaria balearica, gracilis, grandiflora, ledebouriana, pungens, purpurascens, and tmolea, Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germination irregular, often several months

Arenaria festucoides, montans, and rubella , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) indefinitely.

Arenaria stricta , Sow at -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 12 wks, move to 20ºC (68ºF) for germination

Arisaema flavum , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Arisaema consanguineum, and triphyllum , Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germination irregular, often several months

Aristolochia clematitis , Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) for germination

Armeria x 'Formosa', leucocephala, maritima, Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in less than two wks

Armeria juniperifolia , Soak seed o/n, sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in less than two wks

Armeria plantaginea (syn. alliacea), pseudoarmera (syn. latifolia), rhodopensis, and tweedy , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Arnica chamissonis, frigida, and montana , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Artemisia absinthium, ludoviciana, and serrata , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in less than two wks

Artemisia chamaemelifolia, dracunculus, genipi, laxa, stelleriana, and vulgaris , Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germination irregular, often several months

Arum alpinum, creticum, dioscoridis, italicum, and maculatum , Slow germinator - up to a year or more. Store seeds in layers of moist sand in the shade. Check seeds regularly in the spring, and sow them all as soon as radicles appear

Aruncus aethusifolius , Sow at -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4-8 wks, move to 20ºC (68ºF) for germination

Aruncus dioicus, kamtschaticus, and sinensis , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Asarina procumbens , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Asarum canadense, and europaeum , Sow at 22ºC (71ºF) for 6 wks or more. Move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 6-8 wks. Then raise the temperature to 10ºC (50ºF). If no germination in 4-6 wks, repeat the cycle from the beginning. If the warm/cold cycles were not long enough, a new warm/cold cycle is needed.

Asclepias amplexicaulis, hirtella, purpurascens, sullivanti, verticillata, and viridiflora , Sow at -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 12 wks, move to 20ºC (68ºF) for germination

Asclepias exaltata , incarnata, and tuberosa, Sow at -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4 wks in moistened sand, move to 20ºC (68ºF) for germination

Asclepias fascicularis, physocarpa, and syriaca , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germination slow

Asclepias speciosa , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in less than two wks

Asperula odorata , Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) for germination

Asphodeline liburnica , and lutea, Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Asphodelus albus, microcarpus, and ramosus , Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) very slow germinator, often a year or two

Aster alpinus, amellus, azureus, coloradoensis, cordifolius, delavayi (diplostephoides), farreri, laevis, lateriflorus v. horizontalis, linariifolius, novae-angliae, novi-belgii, oblongifolius, pilosus, sagittifolius v drummondii, sericeus, sibiricus, simplex, tongolensis, and x fricartii , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germination slow

Aster bigelovii, divaricatus, ericoides,  linosyris, macrophyllus, ptarmicoides, puniceous , turbinellus, and umbellatus,  Sow at 20ºC (68ºF) in light, if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Aster stracheyi , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in less than two wks

Astilbe x arendsii, chinensis, and x japonica , Sow on the surface at 20ºC (68ºF) in light, germ. in less than two wks

Astilbe myriantha, and simplicifolia , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germination slow

Astilboides tabularis , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF)

Astragalus alopecuroides , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) indefinitely.

Astragalus canadensis , and centralpinus, Impervious seed coats. Shake in dry sharp sand or nick carefully with a file. Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in less than 2 weeks , better with inoculation agent

Astragalus glycyphyllos , Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germination irregular, often several months

Astragalus monspessulanus, and norvegicus , Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53º) for germ.

Astrantia carniolica, grandiflora, major, and maxima , Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53º) for germ.

Asyneuma canescens , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Athamantha cretensis ,  Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) for germination

Aubrieta deltoidea, and x cultorum , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in less than two wks

Baccharis halimifolia , Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germination irregular, often several months

Baldellia ranunculoides , Sow at 22ºC (72ºF) in muddy compost for 2-4 wks, move to 0ºC (32ºF) for 4-6 wks, after which temperature should be raised gradually.

Balsamorhiza hookeri , Sow at -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4 wks, move to 20ºC (68ºF) for germination

Balsamorhiza sagittata , Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) for germination

Baptisia australis, leucantha, and leucophaea , Pour hot water over seeds, let soak 1-3 days until swelling noticeable. Sow at 20ºC (68ºF) for germination in more than two weeks. Sensitive to damping-off

Baptisia pendula , Pour hot water over seeds, let soak 1-3 days until swelling noticeable. Sow at 20ºC (68ºF) for germination in more than two weeks.

Bartsia alpina ,  Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) for germination

Belamcanda chinensis , Surface sow at 20ºC (68ºF) in light under constant humidity, germination slow

Bellis perennis , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in less than two wks

Berardia subacaulis , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Berchemia racemosa ,  Sow at 24ºC (75ºF), germinates in less than two wks

Bergenia cordifolia, crassifolia, and purpurascens , Sow at 22-24ºC (72-75ºF), germination in less than 2 weeks small seed - do not cover

Berlandiera lyrata ,  Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germination slow

Besoniella oregana , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in less than two wks

Biarum carduchorum ,  Surface sow at 20ºC (68ºF) in light under constant humidity, germination slow

Blephilia ciliata , Sow at -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 12 wks, move to 20ºC (68ºF) for germination

Bloomeria crocea , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germination slow

Boltonia asteroides , Sow on the surface at 20ºC (68ºF) in light, germinates in less than two wks

Boltonia latisquamia , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Bouteloua curtipendula, and hirsuta , Sow at -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 12 wks, move to 20ºC (68ºF) for germination

Bouteloua curtipendula, and gracilis , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in less than two wks

Boykinia occidentalis, and rotundiflora , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Brachypodium sylvaticum ,  Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germination slow

Braya alpina , Pour hot water over seeds, let soak 1-3 days until swelling noticeable. Sow at 20ºC (68ºF) for germination in less than two weeks.

Briza media , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germination slow

Brodiaea coronaria, and douglasii , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Bruckenthalia spiculifolia , Surface sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germination irregular, often several months

Buddleia davidii , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in less than two wks

Bulbinella angustifolia, gibbsii, and hookeri , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Buphthalmum salicifolium , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in less than two wks

Bupleurum  falcatum, longifolium, and ranunculoides , Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) for germination

Buchloe dactyloides , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in less than two wks 

Cacalia atriplicifolia, and tuberosa , Sow at -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 12 wks, move to 20ºC (68ºF) for germination

Cachrys alpina ,  Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) for germination

Calamagrostis arundinacea, brachytrichia, and epigejos , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germ. in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Calamagrostis canadensis , Sow immediately outdoors. Short viability seed will germinate in the spring.

Calamintha grandiflora , Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) for germination

Calamintha nepeta, and sylvatica ,  Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germ. in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Calandrina grandiflora , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in less than two wks Treat as annual in cold areas

Calandrina umbellata , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germination slow

Calceolaria alba, biflora, chelidonioides, falklandica, fiebrigiana, filthergillii, polyrrhiza, and mexicana , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in less than two wks small seed - do not cover

Calla palustris , Sow at 22ºC (72ºF) in muddy compost for 2-4 wks, move to 0ºC (32ºF) for 4-6 wks, after which temperature should be raised gradually.

Callirhoe involucrata , Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germination irregular, often several months

Callirhoe triangulata , Sow at -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 12 wks, move to 20ºC (68ºF) for germination

Calluna vulgaris , Surface sow at +4ºC (39ºF), germ. erratic, often many months

Caltha leptosepala, palustris, and polypetala , Sow at 22ºC (72ºF) in muddy compost for 2-4 wks, move to -5ºC (23ºF) for 4-6 wks, after which temperature should be raised gradually. Sow seed immediately after harvest.

Calochortus gunnisonii , and nuttallii, Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Calylophus lavandulifolius , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in less than two wks

Camassia cusickii , leichtlinii alba, and quamash , Sow at +4ºC (39ºF), germ. erratic, often many months.

Camassia scilloides , Sow at -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 12 wks, move to 20ºC (68ºF) for germination

Campanula alliarifolia, carpatica, cochlearifolia (bavaria series), collina, glomerata, lactiflora, lasiocarpa, ochroleuca, parryi, piperi, persicifolia, rapunculus, raddeana, rotundifolia, sarmatica, trachelium, and versicolor  , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germination slow small seed - do not cover

Campanula bellidifolia, betulifolia, latifolia, patula ssp. abietina, pilosa, poscharskyana, punctata, pyramidalis, rapunculoides, speciosa, takesimana, thyrsoides, and tridentata , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Campanula fenestrellata, and garganica , Sow at 22ºC (71ºF) for 6 wks or more. Move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 6-8 wks. Then raise the temperature to 10ºC (50ºF). If no germination in 4-6 wks, repeat the cycle from the beginning. If the warm/cold cycles were not long enough, a new warm/cold cycle is needed. small seed - do not cover

Campanula aucherii, cochlearifolia, incurva, patula, portenschlagiana, pulla, pulsilla, punctata rubriflora, saxifraga, and waldsteiniana , Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germination irregular, often several months small seed - do not cover

Campanula allionii, barbata, carpatica v. turbinata, cenisia, latifolia alba, raineri, and tommasiniana, Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) for germination

Campanula medium, and siberica , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in less than two wks

Campsis radicans, and x tagliabuana, sow 8 wks @ 39ºF, germ. @ 68ºF , 10-15d , can be invasive

Capparis spinosa v. inermis , Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germination irregular, often several months

Cardamine bulbosa, pratensis, trifolia, and walsteinii , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Carex acuta, acutiformis, arenaria, atrata, aurea, bergrenii, buchananii, flacca, lurida, macrocephala, muskingumensis, paniculata, pendula, pseudocyperus, remota, secta, sylvatica, tenuiculmis, and vulpina , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks, recycle.

Carex alba, comans, grayi, nigra, riparia, and testacea , Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) for germination

Carex flava, and umbrosa , Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germination irregular, often several months

Cardiocrinum giganteum , Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) for germination

Carlina acanthifolia, acaulis, and vulgaris , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Cassia marilandica , Scarify seed, then sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in less than two wks

Castilleja miniata , Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) for germination

Caryopteris bungei, and incana , Sow on the surface at 20ºC (68ºF) in light, germinates in less than two wks short viable

Catananche caerulea , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in less than two wks

Ceanothus americanus , Sow at -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 12 wks, move to 20ºC (68ºF) for germination

Celmisia armstrongii, hookerii, semicordata, spectabilis, traversii, and walkeri , Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germination irregular, often several months, best if sown immediately after harvest

Celsia roripifolia , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in less than two wks

Centaurea alpestris, alpina, bella, dealbata, jacea, macrocephala, montana, nigra, orientalis, phrygia, pulcherrima, rupestris, ruthenica, and uniflora , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germination in 10 to 30 days

Centaurium erythraea , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germination slow

Centranthus ruber , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in about two wks

Cephalanthus occidentalis , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in less than two wks

Cephalaria alpina , Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germination irregular, often several months

Cephalaria gigantea , and leucantha , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germ. in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Cerastium arvense, biebersteinii, and tomentosum , Surface sow at 20ºC (68ºF) in light, germ. in less than two wks

Cerastium alpinum, and candidissimum ,  Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germ. in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Cerastium grandiflorum , Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germination irregular, often several months

Cerinthe glabra , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germ. in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Chaenorrhinum origanifolium , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in about two wks

Chamaemelum nobile , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in less than two wks

Chasmanthium latifolium , Sow at 23ºC (73ºF), germinates in about two wks

Chelidonium japonicum , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in less than two wks

Chelidonium majus , Sow at 22ºC (71ºF) for 6 wks or more. Move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 6-8 wks. Then raise the temperature to 10ºC (50ºF). If no germination in 4-6 wks, repeat the cycle from the beginning. If the warm/cold cycles were not long enough, a new warm/cold cycle is needed. small seed - do not cover

Chelone glabra, lyonii, and obliqua , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Chiastophyllum oppositifolium , Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) for germination small seed - do not cover.

Chionochloa conspicua, and pallida , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germ. in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Chionochloa rubra , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in less than two wks

Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium, coccineum, corymbosum, frutescens, indicum, leucanthemum, macrophyllum, maximum, and vulgare , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in less than two wks

Chrysanthemum alpinum ,  Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germ. in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Chrysanthemum arcticum , Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germination irregular, often several months

Chrysanthemum koreanum, and parthenium , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germination slow

Chrysopogon gryllus , Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germination irregular, often several months

Chrysopsis villosa , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germ. in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Cicerbita alpina , Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) for germination

Cichorium intybus , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germ. in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Cicuta maculata , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in less than two wks

Cimicifuga americana, racemosa, ramosa, and simplex , Sow at 22ºC (71ºF) for 6 wks or more. Move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 6-8 wks. Then raise the temperature to 10ºC (50ºF). If no germination in 4-6 wks, repeat the cycle from the beginning. If the warm/cold cycles were not long enough, a new warm/cold cycle is needed.

Circaea lutetiana , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Cirsium acaule, eriophorum, and heterophyllum , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Cirsium japonicum , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germination slow

Cirsium diacanthus ,  Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in less than two wks

Cistus incanus , Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germination irregular, often several months

Cistus laurifolius , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germination slow, often many months

Cladium mariscus , Sow at 22ºC (72ºF) in muddy compost for 2-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4-6 wks, after which temperature should be raised gradually.

Clayttonia megarhiza , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germination slow

Clematis alpina, campaniflora, flammula, heracleifolia, integrifolia, macropetala, paniculata, potaninii, tangutica, and terniflora , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Clematis columbiana, Sow outdoors late fall for 91% germ. in May/June.  Indoor sowing in light at 20ºC (70ºF) should result in 50% germ. over the period of 2 to 10 weeks.

Clematis fremontii , Sow outdoors immediately after seeds ripen in midsummer. Germination begins in late fall.

Clematis occidentalis, Sow at 4ºC (39ºF) for 8 wks, move to 19ºC (65ºF) oscillating with cooler temps. at night.

Clematis mandschurica, recta, vitalba, and viticella , Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) for germination

Clematis virginiana , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germination slow

Clinopodium vulgare ,  Sow at 22-24ºC (71-75ºF), germination in less than 2 weeks

Codonopsis bhtuanica, clematidea, lanceolata, mollis, ovata, pilosula, and tangshen , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks small seed - do not cover

Colchicum autumnale, cilicicum, and macrophyllum , Slow germinator - up to a year or more. Store seeds in layers of moist sand in the shade. Check seeds regularly in the spring, and sow them all as soon as radicles appear

Commelina coelestis, and graminifolia , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF) in light, germinates in less than two wks

Convallaria majalis , Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) for germination in a year or more.  Poisonous

Convolvulus cantrabrica, and sabatius , Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germination irregular, often several months

Convolvulus sepium (syn. Calystegia sepium), and spithamaeus , Sow immediately outdoors. Short viability seed will germinate in the spring. weedy

Coreopsis grandiflora , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF) in light, germinates in less than two wks

Coreopsis lanceolata , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germination slow

Coreopsis palmata , Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF) for 8 wks, move to 22ºC (72ºF) for germ. in about 8 days.

Coreopsis rosea , Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germination irregular, often several months

Coreopsis tripteris , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Cornus canadensis , Slow germinator - up to a year or more. Store seeds in layers of moist sand in the shade. Check seeds regularly in the spring, and sow them all as soon as radicles appear

Coronilla varia , Scarify seed, then sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germination slow

Cortaderia selloana , Surface sow at 22-24ºC (71-75ºF), germination in less than 2 weeks

Cortusa matthioli, and turkestanica , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germ. in 4 wks, move to +4ºC (39ºF) for 4 wks

Corydalis cava, cheilanthifolia, lutea, nobilis, ochroleuca, and solida , Sow at 22ºC (71ºF) for 6 wks or more. Move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 6-8 wks. Then raise the temperature to 10ºC (50ºF). If no germination in 4-6 wks, repeat the cycle from the beginning. If the warm/cold cycles were not long enough, a new warm/cold cycle is needed. Short viable

Corydalis curvisiliqua , Sow immediately outdoors. Short viability seed will germinate in the spring. germinates in the fall, sow fresh only

Corydalis racemosa, and sempervirens , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germination slow Short viable. Germinates in 4-8 weeks

Corynephorus canescens , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germination slow

Crambe cordifolia, maritima, and tatarica , Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germination irregular, often several months

Craspedia lanata , Sow (immediately after harvest) at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germination irregular, often several months

Cremanthodium ellisii , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in less than two wks

Crepis pyrenaica , Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germination irregular, often several months

Crithmum maritimum , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Crocosmia 'Lucifer', and masonorum , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germination slow

Crocus abantensis, asumaniae, tommasinianus, and vernus , Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) for germination in a year or more.

Crucianella stylosa (syn. Phuopsis stylosa) , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germination slow

Cryptantha paradoxa , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in less than two wks

Cyanathus lobatus , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Cyclamen cilicium, coum, hederifolium, mirabile, neapolitanum, pseudibericum, and repandum , Sow at 18ºC (64ºF) in light, germination slow

Cyclamen persicum giganteum , Constant 80ºF soak, sow @ 60ºF in the dark, germinates in about 2 weeks

Cyclamen purpurascens , Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germination irregular, often several months

Cymbalaria muralis , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in less than two wks

Cymopterus planosus , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Cynara cardunculus, and scolymus ,  Sow at 23ºC (73ºF), germinates in about two wks

Cynoglossum glochidatum, nervosum, and officinale , Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germination irregular, often several months

Cyperus eragrostis ,  Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) for germination in a year or more.

Cyperus glaber , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in less than two wks

Cytisus purpureus , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in less than two wks shrub


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