Seed Germination Database - Perennials

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Oenothera acaulis, argilicola, berlandierii, biennis, caespitosa, elata, fruticosa, kunthiana, laciniata, odorata, pallida, perennis, pilosella, rhombipetala, rosea, speciosa, tetragona, and versicolor, and  aff. macroscles, Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in about two wks

Oenothera erythrosepala , Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germination irregular, often several months

Oenothera macrocarpa, missouriensis, and syrticola , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Ononis rotundifolia, and spinosa , Scarify seed, Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germination irregular, often several months

Onopordum acanthium , Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germination irregular, often several months

Onosma arenaria, rigida, and stellulata ,  Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) for germination

Opuntia fragilis, humifusa, phaeacantha, and polyacantha , Sow at -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 12 wks, move to 20ºC (68ºF) for germination , recycle

Origanum vulgare , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in about two wks

Ornithogalum pyrenaicum, and umbellatum , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Orobanche fasiculata , Sow at -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 12 wks, move to 20ºC (68ºF) for germination

Osteospermum jucundum , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in less than two wks

Ourisia glandulosa , Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) for germination

Oxyria digyna , Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) for germination

Oxytropis campestris, lapponica, and purpurea , Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) for germination

Oxypolis rigidor , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in less than two wks

Paeonia anomala, delavayi, lactiflora, lutea, mascula, mlokosewitschii, mollis, officinalis, peregrina, suffruticosa tenuifolia, veitchii, and wittmanniana , Impervious seed coats. Shake in dry sharp sand or nick carefully with a file. Slow germinator - up to a year or more. Store seeds in layers of moist sand in the shade. Check seeds regularly in the spring, and sow them all as soon as radicles appear

Panax ginseng , Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germination irregular, often several months

Pancratium maritimum , Sow under thin cover at 20ºC (68ºF) in light, if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Panicum lanuginosum, leibergii, oligosanthes, perlongum, praecocius, and virgatum , Sow at -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 12 wks, move to 20ºC (68ºF) for germination

Papaver alpinum, atlanticum, kerneri, lateritium, nudicaule, orientale, pilosum, and rhaeticum, Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in less than two wks do not cover

Papaver alboroseum, and miyabeanum, Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germination slow

Papaver burseri, radicatum, rupifragum, sendtneri, and triniifolium , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks do not cover

Papaver spicatum , Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germination irregular, often several months

Paradisea liliastrum, and lusitanica , Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) for germination

Pardancanda norrissii , Sow under very thin cover at 20ºC (68ºF) in light, germination slow

Paris quadrifolia , Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) for germination

Parnassia palustris , Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) for germination

Paronychia kapela ,  Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germination irregular, often several months

Parthenium integrifolium , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 12 wks, then return to 20ºC (68ºF) for germination

Patrinia gibbosa, and scabiosifolia,  Sow at -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks, then return to 20ºC (68ºF) for germination, short viable

Patrinia triloba , Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germination irregular, often several months

Pedicularis canadensis , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in less than two wks

Pedicularis procera , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in less than two wks

Pelargonium endlicherianum , Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germination irregular, often several months  

Peltiphyllum peltatum, Sow at 22ºC (71ºF) for 6 wks or more. Move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 6-8 wks. Then raise the temperature to 10ºC (50ºF). If no germination in 4-6 wks, repeat the cycle from the beginning. If the warm/cold cycles were not long enough, a new warm/cold cycle is needed.

Peltoboykinia tellimoides, and watanabei, Sow at 22ºC (71ºF) for 6 wks or more. Move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 6-8 wks. Then raise the temperature to 10ºC (50ºF). If no germination in 4-6 wks, repeat the cycle from the beginning. If the warm/cold cycles were not long enough, a new warm/cold cycle is needed

Pennisetum alopecuroides, Sow at 22ºC (72ºF), if no germ. in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Pennisetum compressum, orientale, and setaceum , Sow at 22-24ºC (71-75ºF), germination in less than 2 weeks , Note that P. setaceum rubra is not germinable.

Penstemon species, see separate database

Periploca graeca , Sow at 4ºC (40ºF) for 4-8 wks, move to 20ºC (68ºF) for germination

Perovskia atriplicifolia , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germ. in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Petalostemum candidum, purpureum, and villosum , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germination slow

Petasites albus, and hybridus , Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germination irregular, often several months

Petrocoptis glaucifolia , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germination slow

Petrophytum caespitosum , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germination slow

Petrorhagia saxifraga , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in less than two wks

Peucedanum officinale, ostruthium, and verticillare , Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) for germination

Phacelia sericea , Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) for germination

Phalaris arundinacea,  Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germination irregular, often several months

Phlomis cashmeriana, fruticosa, russeliana, and samia , Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germination irregular, often several months

Phlomis tuberosa ,  Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germ. in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Phlox glaberrima v. interior, and pilosa , Sow immediately outdoors. Short viability seed will germinate in the spring.

Phlox x arendsii, and paniculata , Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) for germination

Phragmites australis ,  Sow at 22ºC (72ºF) in muddy compost 

Phuopsis stylosa , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germination slow

Phygelius aequalis, and capensis , Sow at 22-24ºC (71-75ºF), germ. in less than 2 weeks

Physalis franchetii ,  Wash seeds several times, Sow at 22-24ºC (71-75ºF), germinates in less than two wks

Physalis subglabrata, and virginiana , Sow at -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 12 wks, move to 22ºC (72ºF) for germination

Physochlaina orientalis , Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germination irregular, often several months

Physoplexis comosa , Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) for germination

Physostegia virginiana , Sow at -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 12 wks, move to 20ºC (68ºF) for germination not true to type

Phyteuma humile, orbiculare, sibiricum, and spicatum , Surface sow at 20ºC (68ºF) in light, if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks, recycle

Phyteuma hemisphaericum, nigrum, and scheuchzeri , Surface sow at 20ºC (68ºF) in light, germination slow

Phytolacca acinosa, and americana , Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) for germination

Phytolacca octandra , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in less than two wks

Pimpinella saxifraga ,  Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in about two wks

Plantago lanceolata, major, and nivalis , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germ. in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Platycodon apoyama, and grandiflorus , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germination slow

Plumbago capensis , Sow at 23ºC (73ºF), germinates in less about 2 wks

Poa alpina, and chaixii ,  Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germ. in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Poa palustris , Sow at -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 12 wks, move to 20ºC (68ºF) for germination

Podophyllum hexandrum, and peltatum , Pour hot water over seeds, let soak 1-2 days until swelling noticeable. Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) for germination Short viable

Polemonium carneum , Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) for germination

Polemonium boreale, caeruleum, cashmirianum, chartaceum, delicatum, foliosissimum, pauciflorum, reptans, x rickharsonii, and viscosum , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germination slow

Polygonatum canaliculatum, humile, latifolium, multiflorum, odoratum, and verticillatum , Slow germinator - up to a year or more. Store seeds in layers of moist sand in the shade. Check seeds regularly in the spring, and sow them all as soon as radicles appear

Polygonum aubertii , Sow at +4ºC (39ºF) for germ. in about 7 weeks

Polygonum bistorta , Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) for germination

Polygonum capitatum , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germination slow

Polygonum filiforme, viviparum, and weyrichii ,  Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germ. in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Polytaenia nuttallii , Sow at -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 12 wks, move to 20ºC (68ºF) for germination

Potentilla alba, argentea, argyrophylla, atrosanguinea, calabra, concolor, crantzii, fragiformis, gracilis, megalantha, nepalensis, rupestris, and thurberi  , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germination slow

Potentilla arguta, canadensis, caulescens, erecta, and fruticosa , Sow at -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 12 wks, move to 20ºC (68ºF) for germination

Potentilla hyparctica, neumanniana, palustris, speciosa, and tridentata , Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germination irregular, often several months

Potentilla multifida, and pensylvanica , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in less than two wks

Potentilla aurea, heptaphylla, and recta , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Pratia angulata, Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germination irregular, often several months

Prenanthes alba, aspera, and racemosa , Sow at -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 12 wks, move to 20ºC (68ºF) for germination

Primula alpicola, beesiana, x bullesiana, bulleyana,  candelabra hybrids, cockburniana, pubescens, pulverulenta, and waltonii, Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Primula auricula, burmanica, chungensis, x chunglenta, elatior, hirsuta, integrifolia, japonica, juliae, pedemontana, poissonii, rosea, sieboldii, sinopurpurea, smithiana, veris, viscosa, and vulgaris , Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) for germination s

Primula capitata, cortusoides, florindae, polyneura, x pubescens, saxatilis, sikkimensis, and sinopurpurea, Surface sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germination slow

Primula denticulata, farinosa, halleri, nutans, polyantha hybrids, and viallii, Surface sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in less than two wks

Primula frondosa, luteola, secundiflora, scotica , and verticillata, Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germination irregular, often several months

Primula juliae , Sow at 22ºC (71ºF) for 6 wks or more. Move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 6-8 wks. Then raise the temperature to 10ºC (50ºF). If no germination in 4-6 wks, repeat the cycle from the beginning. If the warm/cold cycles were not long enough, a new warm/cold cycle is needed.

Prunella grandiflora, laciniata, vulgaris, and webbiana, Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Prunus prostrata , Slow germinator - up to a year or more. Store seeds in layers of moist sand in the shade. Check seeds regularly in the spring, and sow them all as soon as radicles appear

Psoralea argophylla, esculenta, and tenuiflora, Sow at -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 12 wks, move to 20ºC (68ºF) for germination

Pterocephalus perennis, Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Ptilotrhchum pyrenaicum , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germ. in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Ptilotrichum spinosum, Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germination slow

Pulmonaria mollissima, officinalis, rubra, and saccarata , Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) for germination

Pulsatilla alba, albana, alpina, ambigua, dahurica, grandis, halleri, montana, occidentalis, patens, pratensis, serotina, and vernalis , Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) for germination

Pulsatilla vulgaris , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Punica granatum , Sow at 23ºC (73ºF), germinates in about two wks

Pycnanthemum incanum, and pilosum , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in about two wks

Pycnanthemum tenuifolium, and virginianum , Sow at -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 12 wks, move to 20ºC (68ºF)

Ramonda myconi, and nathaliae , Surface sow at 20ºC (68ºF) in light, if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Ranunculus aconitifolius , amplexicaulis, buchananii, fascicularis, flammula, glacialis, gramineus, haastii, insignis, lyallii, nivicola, pachyrrhizus, parnassifolius, pyrenaeus, romboides, sericophyllus, and thora, Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to 5ºC (23ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) for germination Short viable

Raoulia australis, subserica, and tenuicaulis , Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germination irregular, often several months

Ratibida columnaris, columnifera, and pinnata , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in less than two wks

Rehmannia elata , Sow at 23ºC (73ºF), germinates in about two wks

Rheum australe, and palmatum , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in less than two wks

Rhexia virginica , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Rhodiola rosea , Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) for germination do not cover

Rhodiola rhodantha, and semenovii , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks do not cover

Rhododendron camtschaticum, and ferrugineum, Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) for germination

Rodgersia henrici hybrids, and podophylla , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germination slow do not cover

Rodgersia aesculifolia, pinnata, sambucifolia, and tabularis, Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germ. in less than two wks do not cover

Romneya coulteri, and trichocalyx, Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germination irregular, often several months very difficult. Try GA3 or store seeds in layers of moist sand in the shade. Check seeds regularly every spring, and sow them all as soon as radicles appear.

Roscoea alpina , Impervious seed coats. Shake in dry sharp sand or nick carefully with a file. Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germination irregular, often several months

Roscoea auriculata, cautleoides, purpurea, and scillifolia, Sow at 22-24ºC (71-75ºF), germination in about 2 weeks

Rosmarinus officinalis , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in less than two wks thin cover, needs light

Rudbeckia fulgida, hirta, and maxima , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Rudbeckia laciniata, nitida, occidentalis, and purpurea , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germination slow

Rudbeckia subtomentosa, and triloba , Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germination irregular, often several months

Ruellia humilis , Sow at -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 12 wks, move to 20ºC (68ºF) for germination

Rumex acetosella, and sanguineus , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in less than two wks

Rumex flexuosus , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germination slow

Rumex hydrolapathum , Sow at 22ºC (72ºF) in muddy compost 

Ruscus aculeatus , Impervious seed coats. Shake in dry sharp sand or nick carefully with a file. Slow germinator - up to a year or more. Store seeds in layers of moist sand in the shade. Check seeds regularly in the spring, and sow them all as soon as radicles appear

Ruta graveolens , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in less than two wks

Sabatia angularis , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Saccharum ravennae , Extract seeds from pods, then sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in less than two wks

Sagina subulata , Surface sow at 20ºC (68ºF) in light, germinates in less than two wks

Sagittaria sagittifolia , Sow at 22ºC (72ºF) in muddy compost 

Salvia farinacea , forskaohlei, miltiorrhiza, officinalis, sclarea, and x superba , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in less than two wks

Salvia amplexicaulis, argentea, glutinosa, hians, jurisicii, lavandulifolia, lyrata, nemorosa, pratensis, przewalskii, recognita, transylvanica, and verticillata, Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germination slow

Salvia ringens , Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germination irregular, often several months

Sanguinaria canadensis , Slow germinator - up to a year or more. Store seeds in layers of moist sand in the shade. Check seeds regularly in the spring, and sow them all as soon as radicles appear short viable

Sanguisorba canadensis, hakusanensis, obtusa, officinalis, parviflora, and tenuifolia, Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Sanguisorba minor , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in less than two wks thin cover, needs light

Sanicula europaea , Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) for germination

Santolinia chamaecyparissus, and rosmarinifolius , Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germ. irregular, often several months

Saponaria ocymoides , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Saponaria caespitosa, lutea, officinalis, and pumila ,  Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) for germination

Sarcococca ruscifolia , Slow germinator - up to a year or more. Store seeds in layers of moist sand in the shade. Check seeds regularly in the spring, and sow them all as soon as radicles appear short viable

Satureja montana , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germination slow

Saxifraga aizoides, aspera, biflora , burseriana, cochlearis, cotyledon, cuneifolia, diapensioides, exarata, ferdinandi-coburgi rhodopea, granulata, grisebachii, hostii, longifolia, manschuriensis, marginata, oppositifolia, paniculata, sachalinensis, sedoides, sempervivum, spathularis, stellaris, stribrnyi, umbrosa, and x urbium, Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) for germination do not cover

Saxifraga pennsylvanica , Surface sow at -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 12 wks, move to 20ºC (68ºF) for germination

Saxifraga x arendsii, mutata, and rotundifolia, Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germination slow do not cover

Scabiosa caucasica , Sow at 22-24ºC (71-75ºF), germination in about 2 weeks

Scabiosa columbaria, graminifolia, japonica, lucida, and ochroleuca, Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germination irregular, often several months

Schivereckia doerfleri , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Schivereckia podolica , Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) for germination

Schizachyrium scoparium ,  Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in less than two wks

Scilla bifolia , Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) for germination

Scirpus holoschoenus, lacustris, and tabernaemontani , Sow at 22ºC (72ºF) in muddy compost 

Scirpus mucronatus, and sylvaticus,  Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Scleranthus uniflorus , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Scopolia carniolica , Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) for germination

Scrophularia grandiflora , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germination slow

Scrophularia nodosa , Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germ. irregular, often several months

Scutellaria alpina, baicalensis, indica, orientalis, parvula, pontica, and velenovskyi, Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Scutellaria galericulata , Wash seeds several times,  Sow at +4ºC (39ºF) for 6 wks, move to 16ºC (60ºF) for germ.

Scutellaria incana , Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germ. irregular, often several months

Scutellaria altissima , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germination slow

Sedum acre, aizoon, forsterianum, rupestre, and spurium, Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in less than two wks do not cover

Sedum anacampseros, floriferum, kamtschaticum, lanceolatum, oreganum, pulchellum, and reflexum, Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germination slow do not cover

Sedum album, ewersii, spathulifolium, and ternatum, Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germination irregular, often several months do not cover

Sedum populifolium, and telephium , Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) for germination do not cover

Selinum carvifolia , Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) for germination

Semiaquilegia adoxiodes, and ecalcarata, Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germination irregular, often several months

Sempervivum arachnoideum, calcareum, grandiflorum, montanum, and tectorum, Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks do not cover

Senecio aureus, incanus, integrifolius, nemorensis, pauperculus, and plattensis, Sow at -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 12 wks, move to 20ºC (68ºF) for germ.

Senecio cineraria , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in less than two wks

Senecio doronicum, Sow at -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for erratic germination

Senna hebecarpa , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in less than two wks

Serratula tinctoria , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germination slow

Seseli elatum, gracilis, montanum, and rigida, Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germination irregular

Seseli gummiferum, Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Sesleria caerulea, heuffleriana, nitida, and sadlerana, Sow at -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for erratic germination

Sidalcea candida, hybrida, malvaflora, and neomexicana, Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germination in 2 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) indefinitely. .

Sideritis syriaca ,  Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Silene alpestris, apetalum, bellidoides, fimbriata, orientalis, and schafta, Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in less than two wks

Silene acaulis, asterias, californica, caroliniana, coeli-rosea, maritima, pusilla, regia, waldsteinii, and zawadskii, Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Silene alba, caryophylloides, dioica, hookerii, nutans, saxifraga, scouleri, uniflora, vallesia, and vulgaris, Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germination slow

Silene elisabethae, and vallesia, Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) for germination

Silphium dentata, integrifolium, laciniatum, and perfoliatum, Sow at 4ºC (40ºF) for 12 wks, move to 20ºC (68ºF) for germination

Silphium terebinthinaceum , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germination slow

Silybum marianum, Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in less than two wks

Sisyrinchium albidum, angustifolium, bellum, californicum, campestre, douglasii, montanum, and striatum, Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Smilacina racemosa , Slow germinator - up to a year or more. Store seeds in layers of moist sand in the shade. Check seeds regularly in the spring, and sow them all as soon as radicles appear

Smilacina stellata , Sow at -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 12 wks, move to 20ºC (68ºF) for germination

Smyrnium perfoliatum ,  Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) for germination

Solanum dulcamara , Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germination irregular, often several months

Soldanella alpina, carpatica, montana, and pusilla, Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) for slow germination very slow-growing the first 2-3 years

Solidago altissima, caesia, canadensis, cutleri, gigantea, glomerata, graminifolia, juncea, missouriensis, multiradiata, nemoralis, pinetorum, puberula, remota, riddellii, rigida, roanesis, sempervirens, speciosa, sphacelata, uliginosa, and virgaurea, Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in less than two wks

Solidaster luteus (Aster x Solidago) , Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) for germination Very poor germination

Sorghastrum nutans , Sow at -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 12 wks, move to 20ºC (68ºF) for germination

Sparganium erectum ,  Sow at 22ºC (72ºF) in muddy compost for 6 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4-6 wks, then allow temperatures to raise gradually.

Spartina pectinata , Sow at 22ºC (72ºF) in muddy compost for 6 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4-6 wks, then allow temperatures to raise gradually.

Spergularia rubra , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germination slow

Sphaeralcea coccinea , Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germination irregular, often several months

Sphenopholis intermedia , Sow at -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 12 wks, move to 20ºC (68ºF) for germination

Spiranthes cernua , Sow at -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 12 wks, move to 20ºC (68ºF) for germination

Spodiopogon sibiricus , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF) in light, germinates in about two wks

Sporobolus asper, cryptandrus, and heterolepsis, Sow at -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 12 wks, move to 20ºC (68ºF) for germination

Stachys byzantina, coccinea, lanata, and olympica , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in less than two wks

Stachys grandiflora, monnieri, and officinalis , Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germination irregular, often several months

Stachys palustris, Sow at -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 12 wks, move to 20ºC (68ºF) for germination

Stellaria holostea , Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germination irregular, often several months

Sternbergia candida, clusiana, and fischeriana , Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) for germination

Stipa barbata, calamagrostis, grandis, pennata, spartea, tenuissima, and viridula, Sow at -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 12 wks, move to 20ºC (68ºF) for germination

Stipa extremiorientalis, pulcherrima, tenuissima, and ucrainica , Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germination irregular, often several months

Stipa capillata, and gigantea , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germination slow

Stokesia laevis , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) indefinitely.

Stylophorum diphyllum, and lasiocarpum, Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germination irregular, often several months

Succisa pratensis , Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) for germination  

Swertia kingii, and perennis, Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) for germination

Symphyandra armena, hofmanii, pendula, wanneri, and zanzegur, Sow at 20ºC (68ºF) in light, germinates in less than two wks

Symphytum officinale, and tuberosum , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Talinum okanoganense , Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) for germination

Talinum rugospermum , Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germination irregular, often several months

Tanacetum balsamita, cineariifolium, coccineum, corymbosum, demetrii, huronense, niveum, parthenium, and vulgaris, Sow at 20ºC (68ºF) in light, if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks thin cover

Taraxacum officinale , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germination slow

Telekia speciosa , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in less than two wks

Tellima grandiflora , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Tephrosia virginiana , Sow at -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 12 wks, move to 20ºC (68ºF) for germination

Tetragonolobus maritimus , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germ. in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Teucrium canadense, flavum, and nassilense , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Teucrium chamaedrys, and montanum, Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germination irregular, often several months

Teucrium hyrcanicum , Sow at +4ºC (39ºF) for 8 wks, then move to coldframe for oscillating temps

Teucrium polium, and scorodonia , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in about two wks

Thalictrum aquilegifolium, chelidonii, dasycarpum, dipterocarpum, flavum, foetidum, lucidum, minus, revoltum, and rochebrunianum , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Thamnocalamus spathaceus , Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germination irregular, often several months  

Thaspium trifoliatum , Sow at -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 12 wks, move to 20ºC (68ºF) for germination

Themeda triandra japonica ,  Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germination slow

Thermopsis caroliniana, lanceolata, and montana , Impervious seed coats. Shake in dry sharp sand or nick carefully with a file. Soak for 1-2 days. Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in about 2 weeks Short viable

Thlaspi rotundifolium , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Thymus pulegioides, serpyllum, and vulgaris, Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in about two wks

Tiarella polyphylla, and wherryi ,  Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) for germination

Tofieldia calyculata , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germination slow

Tofieldia glutinosa , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Tolmiea menziesii , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Townsendia florifera, grandiflora, and incana, Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in about two wks

Trachelium caeruleum , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in less than two wks

Tradescantia x andersoniana, ohiensis, and virginiana, Sow at -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 12 wks, move to 20ºC (68ºF) for germination

Trichostema dichotoma , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in less than two wks

Tricyrtis hirta, latifolia, and maculata, Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) for germination

Tricyrtis macropoda , Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germination irregular, often several months

Trifolium alpinum , Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germination irregular, often several months  

Trifolium ochroleucum, and rubens , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germination slow

Trillium cernuum, cumeatum, erectum, grandiflorum, luteum, sessile, and undulatum, Sow immediately outdoors. Short viability seed will germinate in the spring or in the spring of subsequent years. Very short viable. Store seed cold and moist. Sow fresh.

Tripterospemum marianum , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in less than two wks

Trisetum flavescens ,  Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) for germination

Trollius acaulis, altaicus, asiaticus, chinensis, x cultorum, europaeus, laxus, pumilus, and yunnanensis, Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -6 to -7ºC (19-21ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) for germination

Tropaeolum ciliatum, and speciosum, Impervious seed coats. Shake in dry sharp sand or nick carefully with a file. Soak seeds 1-2 days or until swelling noticeable. Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) for germination Short viable

Tulipa kaufmanniana, pulchella, sprengeri, sylvestris, tarda, turkestanica, and urumiensis , Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) for germination

Typha angustifolia, latifolia, laxmannii, and shuttleworthii, Sow in muddy compost at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) gradually, for germination

Unicinia rubra ,  Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germination irregular, often several months

Vaccinium macrocarpon, and myrtillus, Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) for germination

Vaccinium vitis-idaea , Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germination irregular, often several months

Valeriana ciliata, and officinalis, Sow at -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 12 wks, move to 20ºC (68ºF) for germination

Vania campylophylla , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in less than two wks grow on in 10-15ºC (50-59ºF) in good light

Veratrum album, californicum, nigrum, and viride, Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -6 to -7ºC (19-21ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) for germination

Verbascum blattaria, bombyciferum, chaixii, densiflorum, hybridum, longifolium, olympicum, phoeniceum, roripifolium, and thapsus, Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in less than two wks cover thin

Verbascum nigrum , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Verbena bonariensis, rigida, and stricta, Sow at -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4 wks, move to 20ºC (68ºF)for germination

Verbena hastata , Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germination irregular, often several months

Verbena tenuisecta , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germination slow

Verbesina alternifolia, virginica , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germ. in 4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Vernonia altissima, baldwinii, crinita, fasciculata, missurica, noveboracensis, and novaborensis, Sow at 4ºC (40ºF) for 12 wks, move gradually to 20ºC (75ºF) for germination

Veronica austriaca, fruticans, fruticulosa, gentianoides, gutheriana, officinalis, prostrata, satureioides, schmidtiana, and virginica, Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks thin cover, needs light

Veronica incana, longifolia, spicata, subsessilis, teucrium, and urticifolia, Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in less than two wks thin cover, needs light

Veronica repens , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germination slow

Veronicastrum sibiricum, virginica, and virginicum , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF) in light, if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks Do not cover

Vicis americana , Sow at -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 12 wks, move to 20ºC (68ºF) for germination

Viguiera dentata , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germination slow

Viguiera multiflora , Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germination irregular, often several months

Vincetoxicum forrestii, and hirundinaria , Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germination irregular, often several months

Viola cornuta, Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germinates in less than two wks

Viola coreana, mirabilis, nigra, and pedatifida , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Viola elatior, jooi, labradorica, obliqua, pumila, reichenbachiana, rupestris, and triloba, Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germination irregular, often several months

Viola lanceolata, papilionacea, and sagittata, Sow at -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 12 wks, move to 20ºC (68ºF) for germination

Viola odorata, pedata, and sororia, Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) for germination

Vitaliana primuliflora , Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) for germination

Vitex agnus-castus , Sow at 22-24ºC (71-75ºF), germination in less than 2 weeks

Vitis vulpina , Sow at -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 12 wks, move to 20ºC (68ºF) for germination

Vulpia octoflora, Sow at -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 12 wks, move to 20ºC (68ºF) for germination

Wahlenbergia akaroa, albomarginata, and congesta , Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 2-4 wks

Wyethia helianthoides , Sow at Max. 5ºC (41ºF), germination irregular, often several months

Wulfenia bullii , and carinthiaca, Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), if no germination in 3-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 6-12 wks , move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) for germination do not cover

Xerophyllum tenax , Sow at 18-22ºC (64-71ºF) for 2-4 wks, move to -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 4-6 wks, move to 5-12ºC (41-53ºF) for germination

Yucca baccata, filamentosa, and glauca, Sow at 22-24ºC (71-75ºF), germination in less than 2 weeks

Zigadenus elegans, nuttallii, and venosus, Sow at 20ºC (68ºF), germination slow

Zizea aptera , and aurea, Sow at -4 to +4ºC (24-39ºF) for 12 wks, move to 20ºC (68ºF) for germination


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